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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests

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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. Examining an Essential Question:. “With the dawn of the 16 th century, there came together in Europe both the motivation and the means to explore and colonize territory across the seas.”

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slide1
The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests

examining an essential question
Examining an Essential Question:
  • “With the dawn of the 16th century, there came together in Europe both the motivation and the means to explore and colonize territory across the seas.”
  • Assess the validity of this statement with respect to (a) religion (b) trade (c) technology.
religious conflict
Religious Conflict
  • Later years of Renaissance: intense religious zeal and conflict
  • A. Catholic victory in Spain.
  • B. Protestant revolt in northern Europe.
expanding trade
Expanding Trade
  • A. Africa, India, China
  • B. The significance of 1453
  • C. The role of Prince Henry the Navigator
technology
Technology
  • A. Increase in scientific knowledge and technological change
  • B. Improvements of others’ inventions:
  • 1. gunpowder
  • 2. sailing compass
  • C. Shipbuilding, mapmaking
  • D. Printing press
slide7
New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass

Sextant

slide14
The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs

vs.

Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II

slide16
The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas

vs.

Francisco Pizarro

Atahualpa

slide20
The Slave Trade
  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.
  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.
    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.
    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.
  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
slide21
Slave Ship

“Middle Passage”

slide23
African CaptivesThrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!

slide25
The Colonial Class System

Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattos

Native Indians

Black Slaves

slide26
Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World
  • Encomiendaor forced labor.
  • Council of the Indies.
    • Viceroy.
    • New Spain and Peru.
  • Papal agreement.
slide27
The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission

impact of european exploration
Impact of European Exploration

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.

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