SEMINAR. ON. ELECTROPORATION AND MICRONEEDLES . PRESENTED BY. P.RENUKA. M.PHARMACY- II SEM. DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES. KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY,WARANGAL. CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION ELECTROPORATION DEFINITION BACKGROUND
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ELECTROPORATION AND MICRONEEDLES
M.PHARMACY- II SEM
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
Figure 2. Diagram of the basic circuit setup of the electroporation apparatus. This diagram shows the basic electric circuit that provides the voltage for electroporation.
Diagram of the major components of an electroporator with cuvette loaded
Fig. Microscope images of the results of transfection by electroporation. In this experiment, a gene construct was inserted by electroporation into the cells shown on the right. The fluorescence of the protein produced by the reporter gene included in this construct shows that the DNA was properly uptake in the majority of cells. These cells could now be used in further experimentation
Fig. Diagram of the method of gene therapy using electroporation.
Microneedle devices are tiny arrays of needles, typically about the size of a dime, that can be fashioned from silicon, glass, or biodegradable polymers using techniques
However, since the holes that are made in the skin by solid needles are so small, allowing only a tiny amount of drug to enter the body, the number of needles is the primary factor determining the how much drug actually can be administered by a single device.
FIG; Microscope image shows an array of hollow microneedles next to a hypodermic needle typical of those now used to inject drugs and vaccines. (Georgia Tech Image: Shawn Davis)
Figure : (a) A microformedmicroneedle with opening at the apex; (b) 4 pyramid microneedles microformed on a thin aluminium sheet; (c) 9 microneedles with high aspect ratio microformed on thin metal sheet; (d) 4 solid metal microneedles via electroplating; (e) Beveled tip microneedles via electroplating; (f) microneedles in 3x3 array; (g) silicon microneedles with 250 micron height
Instead of one big injection, why not lots of tiny ones? Microneedle devices look and feel like a patch, but they actually consist of hundreds of microneedles that can be programmed to deliver drugs steadily and painlessly
2. By fabricating these needles on a silicon substrate because of their small size, thousands of needles can be fabricated on a single wafer. This leads to high accuracy, good reproducibility, and a moderate fabrication cost.
4.Prausnitz MR et al. 1993. Electroporation of mammalian skin: a mechanism to enhance transdermal drug delivery. Proc NatlAcadSci USA 90: 10504-8.
5. Saito, Tetsuichiro. 2001. In Vivo Electroporation. <http://www.frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp/rc01/in_vivo_electroporation.html> Accessed 2003 15 Feb.
6. Weaver JC. 1995. Electroporation Theory: Concepts and Mechanisms. In: Nickoloff JA, editor. Electroporation Protocols for Microorganisms. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. p 1-26.
7.Inovio. 2002. Technology Platform: Electroporation. <http://www.inovio.com/technology_electroporation.shtml> Accessed 2003 15 Feb
8. S Henry, D V McAllister, M G Allen and M R Prausnitz, MicrofabricatedMicroneedles: A Novel Approach to Transdermal Drug Delivery, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1998, 87: 922-925.
9. Microneedles: Report Describes Progress in Developing New Technology for Painless Drug and Vaccine Delivery, Georgia Research Tech News. (2003