Download
traumatic amnesias psychogenic forgetting n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
TRAUMATIC AMNESIAS: psychogenic forgetting? PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
TRAUMATIC AMNESIAS: psychogenic forgetting?

TRAUMATIC AMNESIAS: psychogenic forgetting?

191 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

TRAUMATIC AMNESIAS: psychogenic forgetting?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. TRAUMATIC AMNESIAS: psychogenic forgetting? • Global retrograde amnesias and fugues • Sudden loss of autobiographical memory and identity • May be triggered by severe psychological stress • Some evidence for link to earlier physical trauma or disease • Pattern of recovery is diverse • Sudden, quick and complete • Gradual and incomplete • Failure of recovery • Rarer than the media suggest • < 1% of clinical casework in some estimates Renee Zellweger AsNurse Betty Richard Gere and Ed Norton in Primal Fear

  2. "A fugue is a combination of amnesia and physical fright. The individual flees from his customary surroundings toward the assumptions of a new identity.“ American Psychiatric Association 1994 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition

  3. Recovery from Fugue states: a sampler • Libby Morris: lost from a shopping mall • Rapid, almost complete recovery • Amnesia for fugue period • Ricky Stephenson: AWOL • Unresolved after two years • Relearning his past • Jody Roberts: You’re a thousand miles away • Unresolved after 12 years • New, stable identity established • James Smith: Rip vanWinkle awakes • Fugue ends after 25 years • “gap” before recovery • Amnesia for fugue period

  4. Dissociative Identity Disorder (aka Multiple Personality Disorder): A capsule history • Rash of cases in late 19th century • Seen as symptom of “hysteria” • Extremely rare until 1980’s • Pre 1970’s < 100; ’85 – ’89, c. 40,000 • Media and professional attention • DID and the recovered memory movement • Often linked to recovered memories of abuse, other more bizarre experiences • Often evolves during aggressive therapy • 1990’s: backlash of skepticismRecanters in court

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF DID • The person • Associated with early, chronic abuse or trauma (est. 50-70% sexual or physical abuse incidence) • And with “a trail of psychopathology” • Tend to be highly hypnotizable • Memory aspects • Autobiographical dissociation may be complete, or “leaky” • Some evidence for implicit memory “across identities” • The outlook • May resolve with therapy or time • Difficult to separate “genuine” cases from role-playing • Relation to everyday “dissociations” in mood and memory • Relation to fugues?

  6. DID: an fMRI study(Tsai, et al. 1999) • 47-yr old woman • Severe childhood abuse • DID and PTSD diagnosis; long-term therapy • Hippocampal volume reduced 1.1 cm3 vs. 2.6 +/-.02 cm3 • Normal-range score (106) on WMS • Cued switch to/from: • Alter personality (“Guardian” 8 yr old) • Irrelevant personality (“Player” 8 yr old) • Avg. 30 seconds to switch • fMRI during switch, maintenance • Right hippocampus: • Inhibition during switch to alter • Activation during switch from alter • No changes during “control” switches