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U rban Sustainable Development C ases. KARACHI TANZANIA. Adrià Bonell - GEO 302. 27.2.2002. KARACHI. Pakistan's major metropolis. Commercial capital 11 million inhabitants 8% of country's total population 4.8% of annual growth rate. HIGH PRICES. LOW PURCHASE CAPACITY.

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u rban sustainable development c ases

Urban Sustainable Development Cases



Adrià Bonell - GEO 302


  • Pakistan's major metropolis
  • Commercial capital
  • 11 million inhabitants
  • 8% of country's total population
  • 4.8% of annual growth rate
legal housing development system



Legal Housing Development System
  • Too ambitious goverment regulations
    • Large plot sizes and rights-of-way, high standards (materials and infraestructure)
  • Delays in extending trunk infrastructure
    • Lack of appropiate roads, piped water and sewerage


  • Impossibility to obtain mortgage financing
    • For low- and and middle-income households
katchi abadis
  • The unplanned settlements created by the informal sector in order to overcome goverment's inability to supply cheap housing
  • 1/2 the city's people are living in them
  • Double city's average growth rate (9%)
katchi abadis problems
Katchi Abadis - Problems
  • Insecurity of property
  • Informal sector lacks technical capacity
  • Illegal dumping of wastes and inadequate sewage treatment

Not incentive to invest in infrastructure

  • Low quality facilities => Natural disasters risk
  • Dangerous health conditions => Epidemics
recommended changes i
Recommended Changes (i)
  • Goverment has to recognize the Katchi Abadis as a reality (not a temporary situation)
    • Incorporate existing informal-built facilities into the overall housing planning
  • Nurture goverment-communities trust
    • Promote positive interactions to find out actual residents' needs
    • Rationalize overlaping responsabilities (city,state and federal agencies) to strenghten accountability
recommended changes ii
Recommended Changes (ii)
  • Decrease regualtory housing requirements
    • Housing must meet public health and safety conditions, but not be so elaborate that it raises unecessarily the price of housing.
  • The public sector should limit its activity to areas in which has a comparative advantage
    • Improve property rights adjudication and registration
    • Provide the necessary trunk infrastructure
    • Allow low-income residents to apply for creditcollectively
the region sub sahara
  • The weakest overall growth of all the developing regions
  • Increasingly marginalised in the global economy
  • The world's heaviest debt burden
  • The 6 main cities generate 30% of GDP
  • 75% of all Tanzanians live in rural areas
  • Agriculture accounts for over 50% of GDP
it is necessary to increase rural productivity

… and Market Access

 Economic wealth

 Technology level

 Industrialisation

 Rural productivity

 Demand for manufactured products

 Incomes

It Is Necessary to Increase Rural Productivity
city rural linkages can help



City-Rural Linkages Can Help
  • Acquire new technical knowledge
  • Build channels to bring this new technology to the rural economy
  • Enable access of agricultural products to city markets
acquire new technical knowledge
Acquire new technical knowledge
  • Improve education and research services
    • To be informed about new technology advances
  • Promote a secure and open business environment (i.e. macroeconomic stability, liberalization, effective legal rules)
    • Foreign investors with access to better equipment, inputs and technology.
    • Reverse migration with knowledge and capital earned abroad
bring the new technology to the rural economy
Bring the new technology to the rural economy
  • Create technology diffusion services
    • Private businesses, government research institutes and media
  • Features
    • Directed to the most innovative groups
    • Avoid too specialized, top down management
    • Client driven and customized to particular needs of each group
enable access to city markets
Enable access to city markets

Only 30% of agricultural output is currently marketed

  • Establish support networks that create trusting relationshps between city businesses and rural producers
    • Formal legal and insurance contracts
    • Ties of ethnicity, religion and kinship (e.g. Muslim and Asian communities)
  • Build new infrastructure
    • Strengthen the road system
thank you

Thank you !

Questions ?

Adrià Bonell - GEO 302