Chapter 8. Social Stratification. Society, The Basics 10th Edition John J. Macionis. What is Social Stratification?. Social stratification – a system by which a society ranks ________ of people in a ________. What is Social Stratification?. Stratification is a trait of society.
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Chapter 8 Social Stratification Society, The Basics 10th Edition John J. Macionis
What is Social Stratification? Social stratification – a system by which a society ranks ________ of people in a ________.
What is Social Stratification? • Stratification is a trait of society. • It persists over generations. • It is _______ , but _______. • It involves not just inequality, but beliefs.
A caste system – social stratification based on ascription or birth. _____ alone determines one’s destiny. There is little opportunity for social _______. Caste and Class Systems
Caste systems are typical of agrarian societies because the lifelong routines of agriculture depend on a rigid sense of ____ and ________. Caste and Class Systems Caste systems shape people’s lives in crucial ways.
The white minority had been the ruling class over the black majority. Even the end of apartheid led to little improvement for millions of poor, black people. Caste and Class Systems The apartheid system in South Africa is a caste system based on ____.
A class system – social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement. Even blood relatives may have different social ________. Caste and Class Systems
Industrial societies move towards meritocracy, social stratification based on ________ ____. In class systems, status consistency is _____ than in caste systems. Caste and Class Systems Meritocracy – based on personal merit
Stratification persists because it is backed up by an ideology, cultural beliefs that justify social ________. Caste and Class Systems The replacement of caste systems with class systems only replaces one ________ with another.
In class systems, social position is a reflection of personal talent and effort. Caste and Class Systems In this common ideology, _____ is a sign of talent and effort; poverty is a result of personal _________.
The Davis-Moore Thesis – stratification has ________ consequences for the operation of a society. Society must attach enough rewards to the more important jobs to attract the _____ necessary to perform these jobs well. The Functions of Social Stratification
Other jobs demand the scarce talents of people with _______ training. The greater the _________ of a position, the more rewards attached to it. The Functions of Social Stratification
Stratification and Conflict • Stratification provides some people with advantages over others. • Karl Marx explained you can either own property, or work for others. • Marx saw classes as defined by people’s __________ to the means of ________.
Stratification and Conflict • Capitalism makes class conflict ________. • Marx examined the conflict between the ________ class (bourgeoisie) and the _______ class (proletariat).
Stratification and Conflict • Max Weber agreed that stratification causes social conflict. • He argued that it involves three dimensions of inequality: • (1) Economic class. • (2) Social status. • (3) ______.
Stratification and Interaction Conspicuous consumption: buying and using ______ with an eye to the “statement” they make about social position. Saudi Prince Bandar bin Sultan's Aspen ski lodge lists for $135 million.
Stratification and Conflict • Socioeconomic status (SES) – a composite ranking based on various dimensions of ________.
Stratification and Technology • With simple technology, survival depends on sharing what group members have. • As technological advances create surplus, inequality ________. • Industrialization turns the tide, lessening inequality.
Stratification and Technology In its post-industrial phase, the United States has shown an ________ income inequality of all high-income nations.
Inequality in the United States • Society is highly ________. • The rich have more money, more education, better health, and consume more goods and services than the poor. Jim C Walton inherited Wal-Mart Stores Net Worth: $15.7 billion
Inequality in the United States • Income – wages or salary from work and earnings from investments. • On average, women have _____ income, wealth, and occupational prestige than men.
Inequality in the United States • __________ serves as a key source of social prestige since we commonly evaluate each other according to what we do. • Race is closely linked to ______ ______ in the United States. Benjamin Carson, MD
Wealth – the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts. ______ is distributed less equally than ______. Income, Wealth, and Power Rick Hilton & daughter Paris
Work provides income and prestige. We evaluate each other according to the kind of work we do. ________ ________ are much the same in all industrial societies. Income, Wealth, and Power Nobel Prize in Medicine 2009 Elizabeth H. Blackburn Carol W. Greider
Families in the upper class earn at least $160,000 annually and may earn ten times that much. The majority of the population are in the middle class. One-third of the population reside in the _______ class. Social Class in the United States
The Difference Class Makes • Children born into ____ families are three times more likely to die from disease, neglect, accidents, or violence during their first year of life. • Health is closely related to ____ ______.
The Difference Class Makes • Affluent people have a strong sense of family history, and are more tolerant of ___________ behavior. • Health is closely related to social standing.
The Difference Class Makes • More ________ people support the Republican party, and people with fewer advantages favor the Democrats. • Most lower-class families are somewhat ______ than middle-class families. • Class also shapes our world of relationships.
Intragenerational social mobility – a change in social position occurring ______ a person’s lifetime. Intergenerational social mobility – upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their _______. Social Mobility
Poverty in the United States • Relative poverty – the deprivation of some people in _______ to those who have more. • Absolute poverty – a __________ of resources that is life threatening.
Poverty in the United States In 2005, the government tallied 37 million people as poor in this country. (12.6% of population) • The___________ of poverty describes the fact that _____ make up an increasing proportion of the poor.
Poverty in the United States The Welfare Dilemma Welfare Reform – recent data show that the welfare rolls have been cut __ ___.
One View: Blame the Poor The ____ are mostly responsible for their own poverty. Anyone who is poor either cannot or will not ____. Explaining Poverty
Counterpoint: Blame Society _____ is primarily responsible for poverty. The loss of jobs in the inner cities is the primary cause. Explaining Poverty
Homelessness There is no precise count of homeless people. Most homeless people report they do not work. As many as ________ people are homeless at some time during the course of a year.
Homelessness One-third of the homeless are substance abusers. One-fourth are _______ ___. Most live in urban areas.