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  1. Integrating HCI into SDLC:A Human-Centered Systems Development Life Cycle Methodology (HCSDLC) World Usability Day, Oulu, Finland Dr. Ping Zhang Syracuse University

  2. Agenda • Philosophy and Strategies • SDLC and HCI Concepts • The HCSDLC model • The HCI development methodology - HCIDLC • Interaction Analysis • Interaction Design • Examples of applying HCIDLC • Prototyping WUD, Oulu

  3. Philosophy & Strategies • Philosophy • Information systems should meet both organizational and human needs • Strategies • Early focus on users and their tasks (at the beginning of SDLC) • Parallel HCI development with modern SA&D • Evaluations through out the entire SDLC • Being iterative • Emphasize all four levels of HCI concerns: usefulness, physical, cognitive, affective WUD, Oulu

  4. Methodologies and Techniques/ Methods • Methodologies: comprehensive, multi-step, incorporating several techniques. A collection of philosophy, strategies, principles and guidelines, procedures, techniques, and automated tools. • Techniques/methods: particular processes that developers follow to help ensure well thought-out, complete, and comprehensible work. E.g. DFD, ERD. WUD, Oulu

  5. System Development Methodology • A standard process followed in an organization to conduct all the steps necessary to analyze, design, implement, and maintain IS. (Hoffer et al, 02) • Different organizations may have different methodologies. • SDLC: a methodology used to structure the process of develop, maintain, and replace IS. WUD, Oulu

  6. Modern SDLC Model Phase 1: Planning & Selection Phase 4: Systems Implementation & Operation Phase 2: Systems Analysis Phase 3: Systems Design From: Valacich, George, Hoffer, 2004 WUD, Oulu

  7. Iteration, Fast Feedback, Accuracy WUD, Oulu

  8. Key HCI Terminologies • User interface, human computer interface • Usefulness • Usability and usability engineering • Human computer interaction WUD, Oulu

  9. User Interface, Human Computer Interface • An aspect of a computer that enables communication between humans and the computer • It is not people’s emotional response to computers, e.g. frustration or trust • It is not a user’s physical movement, e.g. moving or clicking a mouse WUD, Oulu

  10. Usefulness • Concerned with whether the system can be used to achieve some desired goal (Nielsen 93) • About functions provided by a computer system that support a user’s tasks or goals • Usefulness is a HCI concern because users will not use or interact with a system if it is not useful • Abundant technology acceptance studies (e.g., TAM) found that perceived usefulness is the most dominating factor for system acceptance and adoption WUD, Oulu

  11. Usability & Usability Engineering • Usability • The extend to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use (ISO) • The question of how well users can use that functionality (Nielsen 93) • Usability Engineering • A process through which usability characteristics are specified, quantitatively and early in the development process, and measured throughout the process. (Hix & Hartson 1993) • A set of activities that ideally take place throughout the lifecycle of the product, with significant activities happening at the early stage before the user interface has even been designed. (Nielsen 1993) WUD, Oulu

  12. HCI: Human Computer Interaction • HCI is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them(ACM curriculum 2000) • HCI is about designing computer systems that support people so that they can carry out their activities productively and safely(Preece 94) • HCI is concerned with the ways humans interact with information technologies, tasks within various contexts (Zhang et al. 02). • Thus, HCI involves all possible interactions a user may have with a system during its life cycle, including development and use in context (Zhang et al. 02) WUD, Oulu

  13. Modern SA&D (SDLC) Model and Human-Centered SDLC (HCSDLC) Model Modern SA&D - SDLC Proposed HCSDLC Project Selection & Planning Project Selection Project Planning Project Selection Project Planning Requirements Determination Reqs. Determination Process Analysis Data Analysis Logic Analysis Alternative Selection Process Analysis Data Analysis Logic Analysis User Needs Test Context Analysis User Analysis Task Analysis Evaluation Metrics Analysis Alternative Selection Formative Evaluation Database Design User Interface Design Program Design Database Design Program Design Interface Specification Metaphor, Media, Dialogue, Pres. Design Design Coding Coding Testing Installation Documenting Support Implementation Program & Sys Test Installation Documenting Support Summative Evaluation WUD, Oulu

  14. HCI Development Methodology Life Cycle (HCIDLC) Project Selection & Planning Project Selection Project Planning Reqs. Determination User Needs Test Analysis Task Analysis (goals, cog./ affective/ behavioral, work flow, work distribution) Context Analysis User Analysis HCI Principles & Guidelines Evaluation Metrics Formative Evaluation Alternative Selection Interface Specification Formative Evaluation Metaphor Design Media Design Design Dialogue Design Presentation Design Summative Evaluation Formative Evaluation Coding Implementation WUD, Oulu

  15. Requirements Determination User Needs Test Alternative Generation & Selection EvaluationMetrics Context Analysis User Analysis Task/workflow Analysis Interaction Analysis WUD, Oulu

  16. Requirements and User Needs Test • Systems requirements specify the main systems’ functions to support organizational and users’ information needs • User needs test: • Even based on only pen-paper or mockup tests, users can provide a good estimate on whether they will accept the system once it is developed. • A well validated instrument for survey based on TAM WUD, Oulu

  17. Context Analysis • Provide ideas for • Metaphors • Styles for communications • Responsibility distribution between users and system WUD, Oulu

  18. User Analysis • Demographics • Gender, age, education, occupation, cultural background, special needs, computer training and knowledge, experience with similar systems/products • Traits and intelligence • Cognitive style, affectivity, skill sets or capability • Job or task related factors • Job characteristics, knowledge of application domain and job familiarity, frequency of computer use for the job, and usage constraints WUD, Oulu

  19. Task Analysis (more at INFWEST) • Task analysis is concerned with understanding what people do to achieve their (organizational) goals. • Patterns of information processing that users currently use to perform work • Information needs and representations • Patterns of exceptions • In the HCI context, a task analysis will determine what is done by computers, and what is done by humans. • In Interaction Analysis stage, task analysis is concerned with high level (or macro level) goals that are relevant to one’s work context or surroundings. Thus “Organizational Level Tasks (OLT).” • The results of task analysis can be eventually fed into (1) process design (as in SA&D), (2) interaction design (Tool-Level Task support). WUD, Oulu

  20. Evaluation Metrics • Specify the expected concerns of HCI for the system • Guide the rest part of the HCI development process • Provide benchmarks for the formative or/and summative evaluations • Correspond to the four types of HCI concerns: usefulness, physical, cognitive, and affective WUD, Oulu

  21. Multi-Type Concerns of HCI • Physical – fits physical strengths and limitations and does not cause harm to our health • Cognitive – fits our cognitive strengths and limitations and functions as the cognitive extension of our brain • Affective – satisfies our aesthetic and affective needs and is attractive for its own sake • Usefulness – provides rewarding consequences if use the system WUD, Oulu

  22. HCI Evaluation Measures WUD, Oulu

  23. Alternatives Generation & Selection • A particular approach to developing an IS • Selecting the best alternatives : • Step 1: generate 3 alternatives based on the rank of the importance of systems requirements and the severeness of the constraints • Step 2: select the one that is mostly likely to result in the desired IS with given constraints. WUD, Oulu

  24. Rank of the Requirements & HCI Goals • Mandatory: Must have • Essential: Important • Desired: Could live without • High, middle, low range on • System functionalities/requirements • User interaction expectations/HCI goals WUD, Oulu

  25. Sample Requirements & Constraints • Minimum Requirements • Mandatory features versus desired features • Data coverage • Output types • User expectations on accessibility, response time • Constraints on System Development • Time • Financial • Legal • Dynamics of the problem WUD, Oulu

  26. Formative Evaluation • The results of the evaluations can be used to form the final development of the system • May refine systems requirements • May refine evaluation metrics • In contrast to Summative Evaluation: to quantify the quality of the final product • Guided by the Evaluation Metrics • May use various evaluation methods (see Ch7) WUD, Oulu

  27. Metaphor Design Presentation Design Media Design Dialogue Design InteractionDesign WUD, Oulu

  28. Metaphors • Finding or inventing a metaphor or analogy to help users develop a mental model of the system • Metaphor can be realistic or abstract • Examples • Shopping cart/bag • Bookshelf WUD, Oulu

  29. Media Design • Is concerned with selecting the appropriate media for meeting the specific information presentation needs • Popular media types include • text, static images such as painting/drawing or photos, video clips or other dynamic images including animations, speech, sound WUD, Oulu

  30. Dialogue Design • Focuses on how information is provided to and captured from users during a specific task. Similar to a conversation between two people • Existing interaction styles can be used: • Menus, forms, natural language, dialogue boxes, direct manipulation WUD, Oulu

  31. Presentation Design • Concerns the decisions on information architecture and display layout incorporating metaphors, media, dialogue designs with the rest of the displays WUD, Oulu

  32. Formative Evaluations • May happen many times during the design process • May refine systems requirements • May refine evaluation metrics • May refine all design considerations WUD, Oulu

  33. Coding • Actually building the system • May use many available tools • May take iterations due to formative evaluation results WUD, Oulu

  34. Summative Evaluation & Documentation • Summative evaluation • To finally understand how good the finished product is • Guided by Evaluation Metrics and maybe industry standards • Documentation • Can be streamlined with Common Industry Format (CIF) WUD, Oulu

  35. WUD, Oulu

  36. HCI Development Life Cycle Methodology Part 2 - Application Dr. Ping Zhang

  37. Teaching Tools: Background • Teaching Tools (TT) is a small company owned by two retired elementary school teachers, Janet and Chris. • They’ve been creating teaching materials and tools for more than 10 years • During this period, they have been selling their products at school bazaars, via flyers, by direct mail • Wish to have an e-commerce website to sell their products online WUD, Oulu

  38. 1.1 Project Selection and Planning • Owners and consultants completed an in-depth feasibility study • Determined the cost/benefit of the site • Created a tentative budget and schedule for the project • Identified other possible projects, such as linking the website to the current sales system • Decided to go ahead with the project of building the website WUD, Oulu

  39. 2.1 Requirement Determination • Recommending a teaching tool that will meet a specified customer’s needs • Taking online order by credit cards • Providing sample lesson plans that go along with each tool • Providing learning objectives for each tool • Providing a forum for teachers and learners to exchange ideas and experiences WUD, Oulu

  40. 2.2 User Needs Test • A 10-person (5 existing customers and 5 new) focus group was selected to help determine whether the requirements will be accepted by the potential users • Sketches or mockups used: list of functions on paper, with some explanations • A survey, followed by individual interviews • The group suggested that the first 4 requirements are necessary and the 5th would be nice but can leave out WUD, Oulu

  41. 2.3 Context Analysis: Physical & Technical • Physical • Order primarily from home or office • Maybe distracting in both environments, but not much • Technical • Desktop or laptop computers with regular browsers • No support for PDA or cell phone orders for current design WUD, Oulu

  42. 2.3 Context Analysis: Org and Social • Organizational Context • The website reflects the business strategies of TT and is subject to business decision changes made at the strategic level • The website is primarily commercial and has the goal of making money • TT has other sales systems but for now, a decision is made not to consider the connection with other systems yet (future projects) • Social and Cultural Context • Not considered a global site to support multi-languages (maybe in the future projects) WUD, Oulu

  43. 2.4 User Analysis • Demographics: Users are primarily elementary school teachers in the US who speaks English • Traits or intelligence: Have a college degree and are fairly experienced computer users who have some online purchasing experience • Job or task related factors: Users may purchase items from TT two times per year WUD, Oulu

  44. 2.5 User Task Analysis: OLT • From Systems Requirements • T1 - Find the appropriate tool • T2 – Order the selected tools • T3 – Examine sample lesson plans that goes with a tool • T4 – Examine learning objectives for a tool • Additional (based on the nature of the system, may go back and expand the system requirements) • T5 – Explore all tools by different criteria • T6 – Track order status • T7 – Send concerns or complains, or contact owners WUD, Oulu

  45. 2.5 Task Analysis – T1 & T2 • T1 - Choose the appropriate tool • T11 –specify selection criteria • T12 – evaluate recommended tool options • T13 – select a tool for possible purchase • T2 - Order the selected tools • T21 – register as a customer • T22 – check out WUD, Oulu

  46. 2.6 Evaluation Metrics • Physical: • 95% customers think using the system does not impose health concerns. • 95% customers have no problem with reading or hearing the default display or audio signals designed in the system • Cognitive (usability) • New users are able to navigate and use the main functions within 10 minutes • Users are able to get to the main tasks with one or two clicks • Ordering teaching tools should be done within one minute from the time of clicking the submit button until a confirmation screen is returned. • Error rate should be less than 1 in every twenty users for each purchase task. • The number of complaints should be less than 1 in 100 uses. • Secure connection should be alerted when the consumer is entering his or her credit card and personal information. • Affective: • 70% of the tested shoppers should have (a) aesthetic, (b) enjoyable, (c) engaging and (d) satisfactory rating of at least 4 out of 5 • No unnecessary anxiety imposed by the interface design such as “customers have to complete purchasing in 10 seconds” • Relaxed atmosphere for ordering products • At least 70% of the potential target users would trust the website for credit card use • Usefulness: • Customers can order the types of products that they normally cannot get from a local store • Customers can order products with an affordable price and shipping WUD, Oulu

  47. Alternatives Generation & Selection • Selecting the best alternatives : • 1: generate 3 alternatives based on the rank of the importance and the severeness of the constraints • 2: select the one that is mostly likely to result in the desired IS with given constraints. • Rank of the Requirements & HCI Goals • Mandatory: Must have • Essential: Important • Desired: Could live without • High, middle, low range on • System functionalities/requirements • System interaction expectations/HCI goals WUD, Oulu

  48. 2.7 Alternative Selection • Alternative 1 (high end) with a rough cost • Has 5 main functions as specified in 2.1 • Evaluation metrics measures: all to the highest possible level • Finish in 4 months • Alternative 2 (low end) with a rough cost • Has first 2 main functions as specified in 2.1 • Evaluation metrics measures: to the minimum possible level • Finish in 2 months • Alternative 3 (middle end) with a rough cost • Has 4 main functions as specified in 2.1 • Evaluation metrics measures: as specified in 2.6 possible level • Finish in 3 months WUD, Oulu

  49. 2.8 Formative Evaluation • Focus group to evaluate 3rd alternatives • 5 people in the group • Emphasize on system requirements, analysis (user, task, context), and evaluation metrics WUD, Oulu

  50. 3.1 Interface Specification • The metaphors, media, presentations should be considered inside each OLT and TLT • For each TLT, use TSSL to come up with specific designs • For example, for metaphor and visualization • For the homepage of TT • For holding the selected items (e.g., shopping cart -> support T13) • For the organization of all the products (e.g., by some type of classification or catalog of the products -> support T11 and T5) • For presenting the entire website (e.g., sitemap) WUD, Oulu