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LEARNING. 3 Main Types of Learning. Classical Conditioning – Pavlov Operant Conditioning – Skinner Observational / Social Learning - Bandura. How do we learn?. Most learning is associative learning Learning that certain events occur together. What was Derek Zoolander conditioned to do?.

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Presentation Transcript
3 main types of learning
3 Main Types of Learning
  • Classical Conditioning – Pavlov
  • Operant Conditioning – Skinner
  • Observational / Social Learning - Bandura
how do we learn
How do we learn?

Most learning is associative learning

  • Learning that certain events occur together.
classical conditioning 243 250
ClassicalConditioning 243-250

It all started with:

Ivan Pavlov …. And his dogs.

Interested in digestion but noticed dogs were salivating when he entered the room.

Why??

cs cr
CS --> CR
  • Unconditioned stimulus (US)- normal or natural stimulus.
  • Unconditioned Response (UR) - normal / natural response.
  • Neutral Stimulus (NS) - would not normally cause a response.
  • NS + US = UR
  • The neutral stimulus becomes conditioned, to produce the conditioned response.
conditioning
Conditioning
  • Associating neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus
  • Conditioned Stimulus = CS
  • Conditioned Response = CR
  • A previously Neutral Stimulus (NS) produces a response in the animal/human
how did pavlov s experiment work
How did Pavlov’s experiment work?
  • Food = US
  • Salivation = UR
  • Bell = NS → CS
  • Associating bell with food = CS
  • Salivating to the bell = CR
what about our squirt bottle experiment
What about our Squirt Bottle experiment?

Unconditioned Stimulus (US):

Squirt of water

Unconditioned Response (UR):

Eye Flinching

Neutral Stimulus (NS) → (CS):

Word “psycho”

Conditioned Response (CR):

Flinching to word “psycho”

some practice
Some practice
  • Scenario 1
  • A man goes to a nice restaurant & gets his favorite dish – shrimp. After eating at the restaurant, he gets food poisoning & is violently ill. After the food poisoning, he never wants to eat shrimp again and gags a little when he smells it.

_____ + ________  ____________

NS UCS UCR

___________  ____________

CS CR

  • Scenario 2
  • Every time a man hears “Dancing Queen” by Abba, he cannot control his happy feet and begins to dance wildly. Whenever the DJ is about to play “Dancing Queen” he unbuttons the first two buttons on his shirt. Now, whenever the DJ unbuttons his shirt, the person begins to dance wildly.

_____ + ________  ____________

NS UCS UCR

__________  ____________

  • CS CR
slide12
Pavlov spent the rest of his life outlining his ideas. He came up with 5 critical terms that together make up classical conditioning.
  • Acquisition
  • Extinction
  • Spontaneous Recovery
  • Generalization
  • Discrimination
acquisition
Acquisition
  • The initial stage of learning.
  • The phase where the neutral stimulus is associated with the UCS so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit the CR (thus becoming the CS).

Does timing matter?

  • The CS should come before the UCS (within 5 seconds).
extinction
Extinction
  • The diminishing of a conditioned response.
  • Will eventually happen when the UCS does not follow the CS.

Is extinction permanent?

spontaneous recovery
Spontaneous Recovery
  • The reappearance. After a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.
generalization
Generalization
  • The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar responses.
discrimination
Discrimination
  • The learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that does not signal UCS.
john watson
John Watson
  • Started behavioral perspective – idea that psychology should be centered on observable responses
  • Case of Little Albert
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMnhyGozLyE
john watson and advertising
John Watson and advertising
  • Used classical conditioning principles in advertising
  • People associate products with sex appeal or warm, comfortable feelings
cognition in classical conditioning
Cognition in Classical Conditioning
  • Rescorla and Wagner
    • Contingency model of conditioning
    • Rat A heard a tone then was shocked 20 times. Rat B had the tone-shock pair but then was shocked without the tone. Which one had a stronger response?
  • Garcia and Koelling = biological predisposition to learn
  • Rats given sugar water then injected with nausea producing drug hours later will have a taste aversion.
  • Wouldn’t become nauseous to sounds, sights. Why not?
slide22

So are we all just Pavlovian dogs who will mindlessly follow a bell?

What do Rescorla/Wagner and Garcia/Koelling experiments tell us about humans and conditioning?

real life applications of classical conditioning
Real Life applications of Classical Conditioning
  • Animal Training
  • Food Aversions
  • Bedwetting Alarms