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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT 資訊技術應用 Session 6. OUTLINE Logistics Review revised schedule Concept review (O) Ch2 & (L)Ch5: computer H/W terminology review. (Focus on terminology ) Computer categories & their generations/appl Computer system config.

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information technology management session 6
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT資訊技術應用 Session 6

OUTLINE

  • Logistics
    • Review revised schedule
  • Concept review
  • (O) Ch2 & (L)Ch5: computer H/W terminology review. (Focus on terminology)
    • Computer categories & their generations/appl
    • Computer system config.
        • Centralized vs de-centralized / Client-server config / NC
    • Computer systems & components
    • Trends in H/W.

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computer categories their generations
Computer categories & their generations
  • by computing power/size: (micro - mid range - mainframe) (fg 2.1)

supercomputer/mainframe/mini(work station)/micro/portable/NB/palm-top

  • by usage: generic vs specific (embedded system) (eg: inventory counting/car rental)
  • by comp relationship: network server vs client; workstation; host vs device;
  • by generations: 1st - 5th gen (fg 2.2)

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categories of computers some examples by history
CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERSSome examples (by history)
  • SUPERCOMPUTER
  • MAINFRAME
  • MINICOMPUTER
  • WORKSTATION
  • PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC)

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mainframe
MAINFRAME
  • LARGEST COMPUTER; several cabinets
  • 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM
  • Typical applications:
    • COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS
    • COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS ; computation intensive
    • transaction-based, heavy-duty data processing,
    • large # of users; large amount of data

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minicomputer
MINICOMPUTER
  • MIDDLE-RANGE; single cabinet
  • 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM
  • Typical applications:
    • UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS
    • USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME
    • Engineering applications, ..

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microcomputer laptops
MICROCOMPUTER & Laptops
  • DESKTOP OR PORTABLE
  • 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM
  • AFFORDABLE
  • Typical appl:
    • PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERSMANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS
    • CAN BE NETWORKED
    • office appl., personal use, ..
    • Desk-top/Lap-top/Portable

*

5.26

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workstation
WORKSTATION
  • DESKTOP COMPUTER
  • POWERFUL GRAPHICS
  • EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES
  • MULTI-TASKING
  • USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION (e.g.; CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS)
  • Typical appl:
    • Engineering / technical computation

*

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supercomputer
SUPERCOMPUTER
  • HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED
  • COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS
  • FASTEST & multiple CPUs
  • STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS
  • EXPENSIVE
  • Parallel computation (H/W & S/W)
  • Typical appl:
    • LARGE SIMULATIONS (eg.: Nuclear explosion)
    • Extremely computation intensive
    • (Weather / image processing, etc.)

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computer generations
COMPUTER GENERATIONS

1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956

2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963

3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1979

4. VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATEDCIRCUITS (VLSI):1980- PRESENT

ULSI (Ultra Large-scale)

5. ???

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commonsense measures
Commonsense Measures
  • BIT /BYTE/WORD
    • EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte)
    • ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte)

MEMORY SIZE

  • KILOBYTE (KT): 210 bytes... 1024 bytes
  • MEGABYTE (MB): 210 KB... “million” bytes
  • GIGABYTE (GB): 210 MB... “billion” bytes
  • TERABYTES (TB): 210 GB... “trillion” bytes

COMPUTER TIME

Millisecond10-3 second

Microsecond10-6 second

Nanosecond 10-9 second

Picosecond10-12 second

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client server

CLIENT SERVER

REQUESTS

DATA,

SERVICE

USER INTERFACE

APPLICATION FUNCTION

DATA

APPLICATION FUNCTION

NETWORK RESOURCES

CLIENT / SERVER
  • NETWORKED COMPUTERS
  • CLIENT:user (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application,

communications it does not have

  • SERVER:component (computer) having desired data, application,

communications

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centralized decentralized
CENTRALIZED / DECENTRALIZED
  • CENTRALIZED:PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE
    • ONE STANDARD
    • GREATER CONTROL
  • DECENTRALIZED:PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKS
    • MORE FLEXIBILITY
    • FASTER RESPONSE

NETWORK COMPUTERS

  • NETWORK COMPUTER:simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server)

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computer systems components
Computer systems & components
  • The system relationship:
      • Input / processing / Output / storage / control (fg 2.9)
      • CPU & peripheral
  • Components
    • CPU:
    • Primary Storage
      • Where your program & data must reside before program is run.
      • RAM / ROM / EPROM /EEPROM
    • Peripherals
      • all I/O devices and secondary storage devices. Online devices under CPU control.

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slide14

PRIMARY

STORAGE

CPU

INPUT

DEVICES

COMPUTER COMPONENTS

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS

OUTPUT

DEVICES

SECONDARY

STORAGE

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microprocessor
MICROPROCESSOR

VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU

  • WORD LENGTH:bits processed at one time
  • MEGAHERTZ:one million cycles per second
  • DATA BUS WIDTH:bits moved between CPU & other devices
  • Bandwidth: Speed of data transmission.
  • REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING(RISC):embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed
  • MultiMedia eXtension (MMX):enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications
  • MIPS: Million Instruction Per Second

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examples of microprocessors
EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSORS

=> Clock-less computer (asynchronous vs synchronous)

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types of memory
TYPES OF MEMORY
  • RAM :Random Access Memory
    • Dynamic: Changes thru processing
    • Static: Remains constant (power on)
  • ROM :Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)
    • PROM: Program can be changed once
    • EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light
    • EEPROM: Electrically erasable
  • Mask ROM
  • Volatile vs Non-volatile
  • Flash memory

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sequential parallel processing

Program

Program

TASK 1

RESULT

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

TASK 1

TASK 2

TASK 3

RESULT

Program

TASK 2

RESULT

CPU

SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING

SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL

  • vs. Multi-tasking. (Is it really true ?)

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slide19

SECONDARY STORAGE

  • DISK
  • TAPE
  • OPTICAL STORAGE

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disk pack storage

DISK 1

DISK 2

DISK 3

DISK 4

DISK 5

DISK PACK STORAGE
  • LARGE SYSTEMS
  • RELIABLE STORAGE
  • LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA
  • QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE
  • TYPICAL: 11 2-SIDED DISKS
  • CYLINDER: SAME TRACK ALL SURFACES

READ/WRITE

HEADS

CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK)

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slide21

TRACKS AND SECTORS

EACH TRACK HOLDS

SAME AMOUNT OF DATA

TRACKS

START

OF

TRACKS

SECTOR

DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0

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slide22

OPTICAL STORAGE

  • CD-ROM:500-660 MEGABYTES
    • LAND: flat parts of disk surface reflects light
    • PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light
  • WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM):
    • CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable
    • CD-RW: CD - Rewritable
  • DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD):CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data

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slide23

MAGNETIC TAPE or CARTRIDGE

  • STANDARD FOR SEQUENTIAL FILES
  • SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool)
  • RECORD GROUPS: BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block)
  • GROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAP
  • RECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIME
  • USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS
  • INEXPENSIVE

HEADER IBG BLOCK 1 BLOCK 2 BLOCK 3

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peripheral devices
PERIPHERAL DEVICES
  • POINTING DEVICES
  • SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION
  • OUTPUT DEVICES
  • POINTING DEVICES
    • KEYBOARD
    • MOUSE
      • WIRED
      • INFRA-RED
      • TRACKBALL
      • TOUCH PAD
    • JOYSTICK
    • TOUCH SCREEN

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source data automation
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION

CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION

  • OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR):saves characters, format
  • BAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments
  • MAGNETIC INK CHARACTERRECOGNITION (MICR):special ink identifies bank, account, amount
  • PEN-BASED INPUT:digitizes signature
  • DIGITAL SCANNER: translates images & characters into digital form
  • VOICE INPUT DEVICES:converts spoken word into digital form
  • SENSORS: devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges)

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output devices data processing
OUTPUT DEVICES & DATA PROCESSING

OUTPUT DEVICES

  • CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)
  • PRINTER
      • Impact: dot matrix, line printer
      • Non-impact: laser, inkjet
  • PLOTTER
  • VOICE OUTPUT DEVICE
  • MULTIMEDIA

DATA PROCESSING

    • BATCH PROCESSING:transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions.
    • ON-LINE PROCESSING:transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices.

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additional basic terms
Additional Basic Terms
  • FLOPS/MIPS
  • CD/HD/FD
  • dump terminal vs intelligent terminal
  • Fault tolerant capability
  • Disk shadowing
  • Disk array

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trends
Trends
  • faster / cheaper / smaller (MICROMINIATURIZATION) / more reliable / easier UI
  • INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA
  • VIRTUAL REALITY
  • ENHANCED WORLD WIDE WEB
  • SUPERCHIPS
  • FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS
  • MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTERS
  • SMART CARDS
  • Fig. 2.15; Fig. 2.24.

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