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Singapore: Merger & Separation

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  1. Singapore:Merger & Separation an integrated humanities core project about Singapore history

  2. 1963: Merger

  3. .reasons [Singapore & Borneo] • Political • Full independence from British • Too small to be independent states • Economical • Little natural resources • Economy depended on trade • Increase in free trade • Greater economic growth • More jobs created

  4. .reasons [Malaysia] • Security • Curb communism threat • Economic • Most important port in SEA  Singapore • Borneo territories rich in natural resources • Greater growth for Malaya

  5. .developments • Lansdowne Committee • New system of government for Sabah & Sarawak • Details of the new Constitution of Malaysia • Vice-Chairman: Malaya DPM Tun Abdul Razak

  6. .reactions [Singapore] • PAP government welcomed proposals • Central government at Kuala Lumpur • Campaigns • Support for proposed merger • Strong opposition from Barisan Sosialis • Referendum • Different choices of merger • 71% in favour of Singapore joining Malaysia

  7. .reactions [Singapore] • Referendum(01 Sep 1962) • First & only held in Singapore to date • Called for people to vote on terms of merger • 3 options; No option to vote against merger

  8. .reactions [Singapore] • Option A  All Singapore citizens would automatically become citizens of Malaysia, and Singapore would retain a degree of autonomy and state power • Option B  Singapore would become a federal state with no more autonomy than the other states would • Option C  Singapore would enter on terms no less favourable than the Borneo territories, Sabah & Sarawak Which do you think garnered the most votes?

  9. .reactions [Singapore] Was everyone agreeable to the merger? Why were there blank votes?

  10. .reactions [Singapore] • Barisan Sosialis alleged that the people didn’t support merger • Referendum did not have an option objecting the merger  No one legitimately raised the issue in the Legislative Assembly • Methods debatable

  11. .reactions [Singapore] • Barisan Sosialis strongly against referendum • Called for boycott of referendum  Telling supporters to submit blank votes in protest • 26% of votes left blank • Move anticipated by ruling PAP government • Insertion of clause stating that all blank or defaced votes would be counted as a vote for Option A

  12. .reactions [Singapore] • Operation Coldstore (2 Feb 1963) • Security operation • At least 111 anti-government left-wing activists arrested & detained, including members from Barisan Sosialis • Malaysia had strong anti-communist policy • Tunku insisted Singapore round up all pro-communists before merger occurred • Heavy blow to Barisan Sosialis • SATU deregistered  NTUC main trade union

  13. .reactions [Sabah & Sarawak] • Initially undecided • Politically & economically backward • Feared domination by bigger states in Federation • Independence before merger • Tungku Abdul Rahman • Convinced leaders of benefits • British unlikely to grant independence • Malaysian Solidarity Consultative Committee • Work out practical steps towards Formation of Malaysia • Collated information from representatives • Led by Datuk Donald (Fraud) Stephen, North Borneo unofficial

  14. .reactions [Brunei] • Initially in favour of merger • Opposition within Brunei • July 1963: Brunei against merger

  15. .reactions [Britain] • Oct 1961: British support obtained • Nov 1961: Official approval of merger • Britain retain military control in Singapore

  16. .oppositions • Merger delayed until 16 Sep 1963 • Strong objection from countries

  17. .oppositions [Philippines] • Claimed ownership of Sabah • Once belonged to Sultan of Sulu  Leased to British in 1878 • Sulu become part of Philippines  Sabah should follow • 1963: Philippines broke off diplomatic relations with Malaysia

  18. .oppositions [Indonesia] • Malaya take over Borneo • Sabah & Sarawak forced to join Malaysia • Jan 1963: President Sukarno launched policy of Confrontation against Malaysia & British • 31 Aug 1963: Singapore granted independence • Lee Kuan Yew-led PAP govern Singapore until formation of Malaysia

  19. .the.un.survey • Results: 70% of Sabah & Sarawak in favour of merger • Indonesia & Philippines refused to accept report • Indonesia suspended trade with Malaysia & Singapore • Commonwealth troops from Britain, Australia & New Zealand assisted

  20. .federation.of.malaysia • Made up of 14 states, including Singapore • Each state had its own state government • Malaya & Singapore  West Malaysia • Later renamed Peninsular Malaysia • North Borneo renamed Sabah • Sabah & Sarawak  East Malaysia

  21. .federation.of.malaysia • Singapore given special rights & powers • Elections to elect state government • Singapore retain control of education, labour policies & finance • Singaporeans not automatically Malaysians • Strict citizenship laws

  22. .Malaysian.flag • 14-pointed star & 14 stripes represent 14 states that made up Malaysia

  23. 1965: Separation

  24. .reasons • State Government of Singapore could not agree on certain matters with Central Government • The Alliance  Committed to preserve old order, tradition & class privilege • PAP  Social reforms for a more just & equal society

  25. .reasons {Economic Issues} • Common market • Singapore hoped for one  Promote Singapore’s industries & create jobs • Central Government not convinced of benefits • Singapore did not benefit as much as expected from merger with Malaya

  26. .reasons {Economic Issues} • Contributions to Federal Treasury • Dec 1964: Federal Minister of Finance increased Singapore’s contribution from 40% to 60% • Threatened to divert new industries to Malaya • PAP refused to increase  Singapore was bearing its fair share • Central Government pressed for $50m gift for development of states • Singapore agreed loan of $150m to finance projects in Sabah & Sarawak

  27. .reasons {Economic Issues} • Imposition of taxes & quotas • Imposition on duty on imports of light bulbs • Central Government indirectly protecting light bulb industry in Malaysia • Quotas imposed on textiles exported to Britain • Lower quota for Singapore • Singapore Finance Minister Goh Keng Swee threatened to boycott British goods • Became clear that Singapore couldn’t decide future directions for economy within merger

  28. .reasons {Foreign Policies} • Presence of the South African Consulate in Singapore • Tunku led Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference in trade boycott of South Africa because of her apartheid policy • Bank of China & Bank Negara Indonesia operating in Singapore • Representing Chinese communist government • Bank of China believed to channel funds for communist subversive activities • Closure ordered  PAP refused  Hinder trade with China

  29. .reasons {Political Issues} • 1963 September General Elections • Alliance leaders wanted Malays to gain more seats in Singapore Legislative Assembly  Supported UMNO-Alliance leaders • Tunku Abdul Rahman called on Singapore Malays to vote for UMNO  UMNO failed to gain any seat • PAP swept 37 of 51 seats  PAP gaining support • Alliance leaders in KL bitter about defeat  Accused Singapore Malays of being traitors

  30. .reasons {Political Issues} • 1964 Federal Elections • PAP announced taking part in Federal Elections  Angered Malaysia • PAP believed it could build a prosperous & peaceful Malaysia • Tunku Abdul Rahman accused PAP of not keeping is promise to keep out of Federal Elections

  31. .reasons {Political Issues} • Fiery Exchanges • Racial tensions from 1964 elections • Malay extremists stepped up anti-PAP campaigns  PAP accused of oppressing Malays in Singapore • PAP criticised KL government’s policy of granting special rights to Malays in Malayan states • PM Lee Kuan Yew warned of the danger & stressed importance of nation building based on equality • Alliance suspected PAP’s intentions in criticising policy  Harbouring ambitions of replacing it

  32. .reasons {Racial Tensions} • Singapore Malays unhappy with PAP treatment • UMNO held meeting for them to express dissatisfaction • Othman Wok planned to get all Malay organisations to meet to discuss problems affecting Malay community • Syed Jaafar Albar accused PAP of oppressing Malays  Called for boycott of Othman Wok’s meeting

  33. .reasons {Racial Tensions} • Attacks from both side of Causeway led to 1964 racial riot in Singapore

  34. .reasons {Racial Tensions} • 1964 Racial Riots (21 Jul 1964) • 25,000 Malays took part in a Muslim procession in Geylang district to celebrate Prophet Mohammed’s birthday • Lasted 11 days  At least 22 killed & 461 injured • Whole island under curfew • Barricades set on roads; Soldiers patrolled • Curfew lifted a few hours daily to allow people to buy food • PM Lee discouraged grassroots from stirring discord for selfish political gains • 2nd communal violence  2 Sep 1964

  35. .reasons {Racial Tensions} • Tunku blamed riots on Indonesians  Trying to crush Malaysia • 2 Sep riot due to Indonesian provocation • Extremists blamed PM Lee & PAP • PM Lee met Tunku in KL  Agreed to avoid political discussions on sensitive issues which would arouse communal feelings • Basic differences remained unresolvedYusof bin Ishak appealed for forbearance • Tension reached breaking point  Fighting broke out between Malay & Chinese youths

  36. .reasons {Malaysian Malaysia} • PAP maintained aim to build society based on equality  Refused to be bias government • Alliance leaders appeared to rule Malaysia mainly for the good of 1 community • PAP insisted on building a Malaysia meant for all communities & cultures • This meant abolition of special rights & privileges of Malays & equal treatment of all Malaysian citizens, regardless of race or religion

  37. .reasons {Malaysian Malaysia} • May 1965: PAP united opposition parties to form Malaysian Solidarity Convention  Fight for equal treatment of all races • MSC aimed to end communal politics & win political affiliation • Alliance leaders unhappy with PM Lee

  38. Singapore  Malaysia

  39. Separation Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41ND3U_9HgQ

  40. .bibliography • Content: “Impact: History of South-East Asia” by Yeo Hwee Joo • Content: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore_in_Malaysia • Content: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singaporean_national_referendum,_1962 • Content: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Coldstore • Content: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1964_race_riots_in_Singapore • Microsoft Clipart • Merge 1: http://blogs.oracle.com/fusionecm/merge-700542.jpg • Merge 2: http://artfulwriter.com/merger.jpg • Merge 3: http://www.rainbowskill.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/is-this-a-merger.jpg • Singapore flag: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_v7Tyb0nWjEk/TQjT9pllJlI/AAAAAAAACik/WVsYjlvJ3M0/s1600/Singapore_flag1.jpg • Merge 4: http://fbcdanville.com/fbc/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/600px-merge_sign.jpg

  41. .bibliography • Malaysia flag: http://nice3z.myfinejob.com/files/nice3z/images/flag_malaysia.png • Brunei flag: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_W5DkIRv10M0/TP2Vt9Ftd_I/AAAAAAAAAAc/73yDfeEoFaM/s1600/brunei+flag.jpg • Union Jack: http://www.worldofsouvenirs.com/designs/Round-Union-Jack-small.jpg • Opposition: http://alternatives-economiques.fr/blogs/daubenton/files/opposition.jpg • Philippines flag: http://www.sxc.hu/pic/m/s/sa/salingpusa/1034783_philippine_flag.jpg • Indonesia flag: http://www.veryicon.com/icon/png/Flag/Rounded%20World%20Flags/Indonesia%20Flag.png • United Nations logo: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/media/images/UN-LOGO%20copy.jpg

  42. .bibliography • Malaysia land: http://www.iskandarmalaysia.com.my/os/images/malaysia_map.jpg • Malaysia coat-of-arms: http://en.academic.ru/pictures/enwiki/67/Coat_of_arms_of_Malaysia.png • Separation: http://www.accountingweb.com/files/siftmedia-accountingwebus/images/Separation.jpg • Malaysian flag: http://media.expedia.com/media/content/expaus/flags-of-the-world/malaysia-flag-large.gif • Boundary: Google Earth • PAP logo: http://www.fotw.net/images/s/sg%7Dpap.gif • Tax comic: http://portlandhomesales.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/property-tax-good-grief2.gif • Singapore flag: http://www.flagsinformation.com/singapore-flag.png • Malaysia flag: http://www.flagsinformation.com/malaysian-flag.png

  43. The End Thank you for your undivided attention!

  44. Any Questions?