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Lecture #2. Methods used for studying brain development. Food for thought. How can you get inside someone’s brain without really getting “inside” their brain? What would you do to study brain development? What can we learn about brain from studying behavior (and vice versa)? . Outline .

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lecture 2

Lecture #2

Methods used for studying brain development

food for thought
Food for thought
  • How can you get inside someone’s brain without really getting “inside” their brain?
  • What would you do to study brain development?
  • What can we learn about brain from studying behavior (and vice versa)?
outline
Outline
  • Methods used to measure brain development
    • Lesion studies
outline4
Outline
  • Methods used to measure brain development
    • Lesion studies
    • EEG
outline5
Outline
  • Methods used to measure brain development
    • Lesion studies
    • EEG
    • ERP
outline6
Outline
  • Methods used to measure brain development
    • Lesion studies
    • EEG
    • ERP
    • Imaging Studies
outline7
Outline
  • Methods used to measure brain development
    • Lesion studies
    • EEG
    • ERP
    • Imaging Studies
    • Animal Studies
outline8
Outline
  • Methods used to measure brain development
    • Lesion studies
    • EEG
    • ERP
    • Imaging Studies
    • Animal Studies
    • Neuropsychological Studies
outline9
Outline
  • What’s so great?
outline10
Outline
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
lesion studies
Lesion Studies
  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects
lesion studies12
Lesion Studies
  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects
    • Examples
      • Amygdala (emotion)
lesion studies13
Lesion Studies
  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects
    • Examples
      • Amygdala (emotion)
      • Hippocampus (memory)
lesion studies14
Lesion Studies
  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects
    • Examples
      • Amygdala (emotion)
      • Hippocampus (memory)
      • Visual cortex (blindsight)
lesion studies15
Lesion Studies
  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects
    • Examples
      • Amygdala (emotion)
      • Hippocampus (memory)
      • Visual cortex (blindsight)
      • Parietal cortex (attention)
lesion studies16
Lesion Studies
  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects
    • Examples
      • Amygdala (emotion)
      • Hippocampus (memory)
      • Visual cortex (blindsight)
      • Parietal cortex (attention)
      • Left hemisphere (language)
lesion studies17
Lesion Studies
  • What’s so great?
lesion studies18
Lesion Studies
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
electroencephalography eeg
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Measures “brain waves”
electroencephalography eeg20
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Measures “brain waves”
  • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system
electroencephalography eeg21
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Measures “brain waves”
  • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system
    • Can be used as a very low level indicator (is this person alive)
electroencephalography eeg22
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Measures “brain waves”
  • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system
    • Can be used as a very low level indicator (is this person alive)
    • Can also be used to measure behavior
      • Depression
electroencephalography eeg24
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • How does it work?
    • Brains produce electricity
electroencephalography eeg25
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • How does it work?
    • Brains produce electricity
      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires
electroencephalography eeg26
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • How does it work?
    • Brains produce electricity
      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires
    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity
electroencephalography eeg27
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • How does it work?
    • Brains produce electricity
      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires
    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity
    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands
electroencephalography eeg28
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • How does it work?
    • Brains produce electricity
      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires
    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity
    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands
      • Power
electroencephalography eeg29
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • How does it work?
    • Brains produce electricity
      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires
    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity
    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands
      • Power
      • Activation
electroencephalography eeg30
Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • How does it work?
    • Brains produce electricity
      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires
    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity
    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands
      • Power
      • Activation
      • Activation in a particular frequency range
slide31
EEG
  • What’s so great?
slide32
EEG
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
event related potentials erp34
Event – related Potentials (ERP)
  • Definition:
    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.
event related potentials erp35
Event – related Potentials (ERP)
  • Definition:
    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.
  • How do you measure them?
event related potentials erp36
Event – related Potentials (ERP)
  • Definition:
    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.
  • How do you measure them?
    • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity
event related potentials erp37
Event – related Potentials (ERP)
  • Definition:
    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.
  • How do you measure them?
    • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity
    • Activity is recorded in response to a specific discrete event.
event related potentials erp38
Event – related Potentials (ERP)
  • Definition:
    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.
  • How do you measure them?
    • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity
    • Activity is recorded in response to a specific discrete event.
    • Averaging over enough trials gets rid of the “noise” of the background EEG.
erp continued
ERP (continued)
  • What do they look like?
erp continued40
ERP (continued)
  • What do they look like?
    • Components seen in infants
      • Nc Component
erp continued41
ERP (continued)
  • What do they look like?
    • Components seen in infants
      • Nc Component
      • PSW
erp continued42
ERP (continued)
  • What do they look like?
    • Components seen in infants
      • Nc Component
      • PSW
      • P300
erp continued43
ERP (continued)
  • What do they look like?
    • Components seen in infants
      • Nc Component
      • PSW
      • P300
      • Sensory Components
erp continued44
ERP (continued)
  • What do they look like?
erp continued45
ERP (continued)
  • What do they look like?
    • Components seen in infants
      • Nc Component
      • PSW
      • P300
      • Sensory Components
  • What can you learn from them?
    • Examples
      • Language and early phonological development
slide46
ERP
  • What’s so great?
slide47
ERP
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
imaging
Imaging
  • CAT Scans
imaging49
Imaging
  • CAT Scans
    • Useful for describing overall brain structure
imaging51
Imaging
  • CAT Scans
    • Useful for describing overall brain structure
  • PET Scans
imaging52
Imaging
  • CAT Scans
    • Useful for describing overall brain structure
  • PET Scans
    • Good measure of blood flow in brain
imaging53
Imaging
  • CAT Scans
    • Useful for describing overall brain structure
  • PET Scans
    • Good measure of blood flow in brain
    • Poor resolution
imaging54
Imaging
  • CAT Scans
    • Useful for describing overall brain structure
  • PET Scans
    • Good measure of blood flow in brain
    • Poor resolution
    • Involves radiation
imaging continued57
Imaging (continued)
  • MRI
    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain
imaging continued58
Imaging (continued)
  • MRI
    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain
    • Example - Myelin
imaging continued61
Imaging (continued)
  • MRI
    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain
    • Example - Myelin
  • fMRI
imaging continued62
Imaging (continued)
  • MRI
    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain
    • Example - Myelin
  • fMRI
    • Excellent resolution
imaging continued63
Imaging (continued)
  • MRI
    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain
    • Example - Myelin
  • fMRI
    • Excellent resolution
    • Provides image of blood flow in the brain
imaging continued64
Imaging (continued)
  • MRI
    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain
    • Example - Myelin
  • fMRI
    • Excellent resolution
    • Provides image of blood flow in the brain
    • Example - Working Memory
imaging studies
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
imaging studies68
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
    • CAT Scan
imaging studies69
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
    • CAT Scan
    • PET Scan
imaging studies70
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
    • CAT Scan
    • PET Scan
    • MRI
imaging studies71
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
    • CAT Scan
    • PET Scan
    • MRI
    • fMRI
imaging studies72
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
imaging studies73
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
    • CAT Scan
imaging studies74
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
    • CAT Scan
    • PET Scan
imaging studies75
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
    • CAT Scan
    • PET Scan
    • MRI
imaging studies76
Imaging Studies
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
    • CAT Scan
    • PET Scan
    • MRI
    • fMRI
animal studies
Animal Studies
  • You can look directly at brain with animals
    • Whatever you want to look at
    • Do specific lesions
animal studies78
Animal Studies
  • What’s so great?
animal studies79
Animal Studies
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
neuropsychology
Neuropsychology
  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies
neuropsychology81
Neuropsychology
  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies
  • These behaviors are associated with parts of the brain from lesion, animal, or imaging studies
neuropsychology82
Neuropsychology
  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies
  • These behaviors are associated with parts of the brain from lesion, animal, or imaging studies
  • You can measure the function of the brain indirectly
neuropsychology83
Neuropsychology
  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies
  • These behaviors are associated with parts of the brain from lesion, animal, or imaging studies
  • You can measure the function of the brain indirectly
    • Example: Autism
neuropsychological studies
Neuropsychological Studies
  • What’s so great?
neuropsychological studies85
Neuropsychological Studies
  • What’s so great?
  • What’s the problem?
all of the above
All of the above?
  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?
all of the above87
All of the above?
  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?
    • Look at behavior to determine what you’re really measuring – converging measures
all of the above88
All of the above?
  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?
    • Look at behavior to determine what you’re really measuring – converging measures
    • What if an imaging study shows something different than lesion studies or animal studies always have?
all of the above89
All of the above?
  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?
    • Look at behavior to determine what you’re really measuring – converging measures
    • What if an imaging study shows something different than lesion studies or animal studies always have?
    • Complementary resolution advantages
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