MACHINE GUARDING 29 CFR 1910.211 to 1910.219
RULE OF THUMB • Any machine part, function, or process that may cause injury must be safeguarded.
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS • Regulatory requirements found in 29 CFR 1910, Subpart O • Applies to specific types of equipment • Describes general requirements
WHERE MECHANICAL HAZARDS OCCUR • The point of operation • In the power transmission apparatus • Other moving parts
REQUIREMENTS FORSAFEGUARDS • Minimum general requirements include: • Prevent contact • Secure • Protect from falling objects • Create no new hazards • Create no interference
PREVENT CONTACT • The safeguard must prevent hands, arms, and any other part of an operator’s body from making contact with dangerous moving parts. • The safeguarding system should eliminate the possibility of the operator or another worker placing parts of their bodies near hazardous moving parts.
SECURE • Operators should not be able to easily remove or tamper with safeguards • Guards should be made with a durable material that will withstand normal wear and tear. • Guards must be firmly secured to the machine.
PROTECT FROM FALLINGPARTS • Safeguard should ensure that no objects can fall into moving parts. • A small tool dropped into a cycling machine could become a projectile that would strike and injure someone.
CREATE NO NEWHAZARDS • A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates new hazards such as a jagged edge or an unfinished surface that could cause a laceration. • The edges of the guard, for example, should be rolled or bolted so that sharp edges are eliminated.
CREATE NOINTERFERENCE • A safeguard that impedes an operator from performing the job quickly and comfortably may be overridden or disregarded. • Proper safeguarding may actually enhance efficiency since it relieves the operator’s apprehensions about the injury.
TYPES OF GUARDS • Fixed • Adjustable • Self-adjustable
FIXED GUARDS • A permanent part of the machine • Not dependant on any other part to perform the function • Usually made of sheet metal, screen bars or other material which will withstand the anticipated impact • Considered the preferred type of guard • Simple and durable
ADJUSTABLE GUARDS • Very flexible to accommodate various types of stock • Manually adjusted
SELF-ADJUSTABLEGUARDS • The opening is determined by the movement of the stock through the guard. • Does not always provide maximum protection.
Bandsaws Circular Saws Grinders Flat fillers Transplanters Soil Mixers Pot fillers Fans PTOs (Power Take Off) MACHINES REQUIRING GUARDING
POWER TAKE OFF (PTO)SHIELDS/GUARDS • Every component of the PTO should be shielded for maximum protection. • For this reason, engineers have developed four different types of shields: • master shields • stub shaft shields • shaft shields • implement shields.
PRECAUTIONS WITH PTO SHIELDS/GUARDS • Never remove PTO shields. • Shield all PTOs completely by installing shaft shields, master shields, and implement shields. • Always replace bent or damaged guards. • Safety decals must be present on the tractor and PTO driven equipment. • Do not perform maintenance on any equipment until the engine is shut off and the PTO and other machinery parts have completely stopped moving.
WHEN IS EMPLOYEE TRAINING REQUIRED? • For new operators and maintenance or setup personnel • When any new or altered safeguards are put in service • When operators are assigned to a new machine or operation
REQUIREMENTS FOREMPLOYEE TRAINING • Description and identification of hazards associated with particular machines • The safeguards themselves, how they provide protection, and the hazards for which they are intended • How to use the safeguards and why
REQUIREMENTS FOREMPLOYEE TRAINING (Cont.) • How and under what circumstances safeguards can be removed, and by whom (in most cases, repair or maintenance personnel only) • What to do if a safeguard is damaged, missing or unable to provide adequate protection
SUMMARY • Where mechanical hazards occur • Requirements for safeguards • Types of guards • Machines requiring guarding (pictures) • Employee training
REFERENCES FORMORE INFORMATION • http://www.cdc.gov/nasd/menu/topic/machinery_guarding.html • http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/0994_2.html • http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/machineguarding/index.html#eTools
LET’S SEE WHATYOU’VE LEARNED Quiz time!!!
QUESTION 1 • Mechanical hazards occur at the point of operation, in the power transmission apparatus, and ___________________. • Answer: Mechanical hazards occur at the point of operation, in the power transmission apparatus, and in any other moving parts.
QUESTION 2 • Any moving part on a piece of equipment that could injure an employee should be guarded. True or False • Answer: True. All moving parts that create a hazard should be guarded.
QUESTION 3 • Employees should be trained when new safeguards are put in service. True or False • Answer: True. Employees should be trained when new or altered safeguards are put in service.
QUESTION 4 • The blades of a fan located less than 7 feet from the ground shall be guarded and the guard shall have openings no larger than _______ inch(es). • Answer: The blades of a fan located less than 7 feet from the ground shall be guarded and the guard shall have openings no larger than one-half (1/2) inch.
QUESTION 5 • As long as the guards remain in place, operators should not be trained on machine guarding. True or False • Answer: False. If operators work with equipment containing safeguards, they should be adequately trained on how to use them.
QUESTION 6 • Some guards may not prevent parts of the worker’s body and clothing from making contact with dangerous parts. True or False • Answer: False. All guards must prevent contact.
QUESTION 7 • Fixed guards are a permanent part of the machine. True or False • Answer: True. Fixed guards are a permanent part of the machine and to deter easy removal, a fixed guard must require the aid of an appropriate tool to open, remove, replace, perform maintenance or repair work.
QUESTION 8 • Name one minimum general requirement for safeguards. • Answers • prevent contact • be secure • protect from falling parts • create no new hazards • create no interference
QUESTION 9 • Keep any shielding on PTO’s in place or replace immediately after servicing. True or False • Answer: True. If the removal of a guard is absolutely necessary for maintenance or repair, replace the guard immediately when finished.
QUESTION 10 • List the types of guards common to our industry. • Answer: Fixed, adjustable, and self-adjustable.