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X _ray films - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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X _ray films. Extraoral films. Intraoral films. Occlusal. Periapical. Cephalometric. Panoramic. Bite wing. Bitewing Film. This film shows the crowns of both maxillary and mandibular teeth on one film . The bitewing film is used to identify interproximal caries. Occlusal Film.

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x ray films

X_ray films

Extraoral films

Intraoral films

Occlusal

Periapical

Cephalometric

Panoramic

Bite wing

slide2

Bitewing Film

  • This film shows the crowns of both maxillary and mandibular teeth on one film .
  • The bitewing film is used to identify interproximal caries
slide3

Occlusal Film

The occlusal film is used to identify the extent of larger pathological conditions, to locate an object in the buccolingual direction

Impacted maxillary canine

Anterior dentition - Child

slide4

periapical pathology

internal

resorption

caries

Periapical Film

  • Periapical means “around the apex”.
  • This film is intended to show the entire tooth including the area around the root of the tooth.
slide5

Extraoral Film

Extraoral films used in Dentistry include the Panoramic, Lateral oblique jaw film, Cepahalometric film.

slide6

The panoramic film is the most common extraoral film used in dentistry. It does not provide the detail that intraoral films do but it gives an overall view of the entire dentition, both maxillary and mandibular. It is very helpful for third molar extractions

slide7

Ortho-surg. patient – jaw realignment

Surgery patient- mandibular implant

Cephalometric films, such as the lateral cephs above, are used to identify both the bone and the soft tissue outline on the same film. This film is used routinely by orthodontists in developing treatment plans for their patients. It is also used by oral surgeons for evaluating trauma and conditions requiring surgical correction.

slide8

Contents of Film Packet

0

Black paper: surrounds film;

protects emulsion.

Film:

raised dot in one corner used for film orientation.

Lead foil: protects film from backscatter ; reduces patient exposure

SO IT prevent:

— Some of the residual radiation that has passed through the film from continuing on into the patient's tissues

— Scattered secondary radiation, from X-ray photon interactions within the tissues beyond the film ,coming back on to the film and degrading the image

slide9

0

Scatter (secondary)radiation is produced when the primary x-rays from the x-ray tube interact with the patient’shard and soft tissues. Backscatter radiation refers to those scattered x-rays that go “back” toward the film.

Primary x-rays

Scatter (secondary) x-rays

slide10

The film packet contents

The contents of a film packet.

A The outer wrapper.

B The film.

C The sheet of lead foil.

D The protective black paper

slide12

Film Composition

0

An x-ray film is composed of a plastic (polyester) base covered on both sides with an emulsion; this is called a double-emulsion film. The emulsion contains silver halide crystals which are surrounded by gelatin. The silver halide crystals are affected by the x-rays and eventually form the image during film processing.,

The emulsion (gray lines below) is attached to the base with a very thin layer of adhesive (green lines below). The base has a slight bluish tint which makes viewing the films easier on the eye. The emulsion is covered with a thin layer of gelatin, a “supercoat,” which helps to protect the film (yellow lines below).

Double emulsion

(emusion on both sides)

adhesive

blue-tinted base

supercoat

emulsion with silver halide crystals and gelatin

slide13

The radiographic film cross_section

Diagram showing the cross-sectional structure of

double emulsion radiographic film

slide14

Film Sizes (Intraoral)

  • Intraoral film packets come in five basic sizes:
    • Child (#0)
    • Narrow anterior (#1)
    • Adult size (#2)
    • Extralong post. film (#3)
    • Occlusal(#4)
slide15

#2

#3

Adult PA, BW

Extra-long BW

Child occlusal

#1

Adult ant. PA

#4

Occlusal in adults

#0

Child PA, BW

slide16

The white side of the film packet faces the tube. A, Size 4 occlusal film.

B, Size 2 film;C size 1 film.

slide17

Extra_oral Film Cassettes

  • A cassette is a plastic or metal case used in extraoral radiography to hold the film and protect it from exposure to light. Cassettes are available in rigid or flexible styles.
  • A cassette holds two intensifying screens
  • (one on each side) in tight contact with the Film.
slide18

Rigid metal cassette

Flexible vinyl cassette

slide19

Intensifying Screen Function

  • An intensifying screen intensifies or increases the effect of the radiation and thus decreases the amount of exposure time needed.
  • The intensifying screen is coated with a material called phosphor that gives off light when struck by x-radiation.
  • The film inside the cassette is sandwiched between the intensifying screens and is affected by both the light produced by the phosphor and the x-radiation.
slide20

Film Speed

0

  • Film speed refers to the amount of radiation required to produce a radiograph of standard density (darkness). Film speed is determined by the following:
    • The size of the silver halide crystals.
    • The thickness of the emulsion.
    • The presence of special radiosensitive dyes.
slide21

The film speed determines how much exposure time is required to produce the image on the film.

  • A fast film requires less radiation, and the film responds more quickly because the silver halide crystals in the emulsion are larger.
  • The larger the crystals, the faster the film speed. This is the same principal as film speed on photographic film.
  • The “F” speed is the newestandfastest film on the market today and will reduce radiation exposure to the patient by 20% to 60% compared to E-speed film and D- speed film.

dot

# of films

in packet

#2

#2

#1

plastic

plastic

paper

D-speed

(Ultraspeed)

F-speed

(Insight)

tab