Procesdenken (Hoe) doen we dat in Nederland ?
Programma • Inleiding • Een korte kennismaking met processen • Discussie in groepjes rond de vragen: • Welke rol speelt procesdenken in de eigen organisatie • Waar zie je het terug • Helpt het (en waarvoor dan) • Past het binnen de organisatie • Waarom: welke factoren kunnen hierbij een remmende / bevorderende invloed hebben • Welke rol vervult het management hierbij • Verschuift dit in de toekomst? • Plenaire terugkoppeling
Een korte kennismaking met processen • je kunt op verschillende manieren naar een organisatie kijken, bij voorbeeld vanuit invalshoeken als • functie • markt • proces • .... • de organisatiestructuur geeft vaak een of meer van deze invalshoeken weer • als ze er niet in de structuur zitten, bestaan ze natuurlijk toch nog steeds
een functionele organisatiestructuur Advantages: - capability development - flexible use of manpower - high utilisation of capacities management productie verkoop administratie boekhouding financiën personeel
een productgerichte organisatiestructuur Advantages: - better involvement with product - product knowledge / fit ends and means - reduced leadtimes / quality control management health car life underwriting claims marketing
een geografische organisatiestructuur Advantages: - customer contacts - adapt to local situation - transport costs management Europe The America’s Australasia Operations sales administration
een marktgerichte organisatiestructuur Advantages: - cater to customer wishes - lower marketing costs - flexibility towards customer management retail whole-sale government Operations sales administration
Arguments for selecting a specific structure: • effectiveness (structure follows strategy) • efficiency • controllability • vulnerability • flexibility • staff development • manpower availability
Bij functies onderscheiden we: • The function of a person • Tasks which are part • of the job description • (what the person does) • The functions of an organisation • What the organisation does Common element in all cases: Focus on: - what is done - the nature of work Not on: - how it is done - why it is done
Functies zijn stabiel • The basic functions of a bank are: • - acquiring money through offering payment of interest • - lending this money at a higher interest rate • - administrating these activities • - advertising the existence of the bank • - managing the process • This has not changed since the dawn of banking
Example: Function areas of a medium sized manufacturing firm • business planning • finance • product planning • materials • production planning • production • sales • distribution • accounting • personnel
Function characteristics: • - a function is ongoing and continuous • - a function is NOT based on organisational structures • - a function categorises ‘WHAT’ is done, not ‘how’ • - functions are studied at the organisation level
Model view: process (I) • Functional decomposition has been used during the seventies, eighties and early nineties of the last century as the main basis for developing organisational information infrastructures • because of • the ease of understanding of the resulting model • the stability of the resulting model • insight in organisational capabilities the model provides • the close link between the model and prevailing organisational management practices • and because of the stability of much of industry at the time • Since stability was destroyed by ICT-development we need additional views
Many definitions of ‘process’ exist. • A structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specified output for a particular customer or market (Davenport) • A collection of activities that takes one or more inputs and creates an output that is of value to the customer (Hammer / Champy) • Or more informal: • A set of activities that together answer a customer request (Kusters) • Remark: a process is not an a procedure which describes ‘HOW’ an is activity is (should be) carried out. Procedures change over time and are designed after the business modelling activities are completed
Heeft het effect? • Harley-Davidson cut delivery time from 360 to 3 days • Citybank cut the time required to process a mortgage application from 30-60 days to 15 minutes • Sheraton ran a typical 300 room hotel with 40 managers and 200 staff, now the numbers are 14 and 40 with increased customer satisfaction • Bell Atlantic reduced from 15 to 3 days the time required to install new communications circuits for business and cut associated labour costs from $88 million to $6 million • ...
Of niet? • General Motors and IBM won through the implementation of a total quality management initiatives the Baldridge award for quality at the same time that their economic and competitive performance was plummeting • An insures cuts claims process time by 44% while profits drop • 50 - 70 % of reengineering projects fail • a similar % is reported for TQM programs • From which we might conclude that: • It is difficult to target the right improvement area • It is difficult to change
Process thinking revolves around these questions • Whenever the label ‘process’ is attached to something (e.g. product development), who exactly is the customer, that is the person or community to which the outcome matters • What must happen for the customer’s request or need to be satisfied? • What value should be created by the process for the customer? • Who does the work? Who must work together? • How is the work to be co-ordinated? • Can ICT be exploited to improve co-ordination? Redesign the activities? Empower the people who do the work? Augment training? Alter incentives?
Typical processes: • Operational Management • product development performance monitoring • customer acquisition information management • customer requirements identification asset management • manufacturing human resource management • integrated logistics planning and • order management resource allocation • post-sales services
Model view: process (IX) research and development marketing manufacturing Competitor analysis Market research New product prototype New Product Development A typical cross-functional process
process versus functie • Function Process • independent of org. struct. independent of org. struct. • stabiel stabiel • focus op ‘wat’ focus op ‘wat’ • aggregate by nature of work aggregate by goal • continuous begin and end • kernwoord: capability kernwoord: product • A functional approach was invented to create effectiveness and control, it was not specifically aimed at efficiency nor at flexibility • IT enables a process focus with increase efficiency and flexibility while maintaining effectiveness and control.
Functie Proces • Wat men kan doen Wat men doet
An approach that can be taken (Business Process Redesign) • develop business vision and process objectives • cost / time reduction • output quality • quality of work life / learning / empowerment • identify processes to be redesigned • exhaustive (identify all; prioritise) • high impact (identify most critical processes) • understand and measure current processes • identify current problems and set baseline (globally) • identify IT levers • brainstorm / structured discussion of IT capabilities • design and build a prototype of the process
Main characteristics: • its process and customer oriented • its ICT-based • its radical • its empowerment and team oriented • - the radical (clean slate) approach • current processes are riddled with assumptions regarding time, place, order of activities • the assumptions are implicit because it used to be unthinkable to deviate from them • IT enables the elimination of many of these basic assumptions, • The BPR approach stimulates thought processes in that direction
Model view: process (XV) • Effects: • motivation • commitment • flexibility • responsiveness • productivity • quality
Waar tref je het procesdenken aan: • in de organisatiestructuur ? • via de aanstelling van procesmanagers ? • in het kwaliteitsysteem ? • in de aansturing van de productie ? • in de informatiesystemen ? • in de wijze waarop de organisatie zicht naar buiten presenteert ? • ... • ... • ...