Catalyst • Hope you had a great Spring Break! • Sit at your assigned table. • Take out the work you completed with the substitute on Monday and Tuesday.
Agenda • Catalyst • Opening/Objective • Lesson: Nervous System • Open-Ended: Work Time
Announcements • Midterm Assessment • April 8th and 9th(Tuesday and Wednesday) • Open-note (as always) • Cumulative • Includes all information covered this quarter : • Integumentary system • Muscular system • Skeletal system • Nervous system • Most of the questions should be familiar to you, so be sure to look over any areas that gave you problems on previous exams. • I will post the correct answers to past exams on the “Answer Board” by Monday
The Nervous System: Part I Focus on the Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System • Main Components: the brain and the spinal cord • Both are covered by the meninges(three layers of connective tissue) • Functions: Processes information from the peripheral nervous system and sends signals back
The Brain • Forebrain • Midbrain • Hindbrain
The Forebrain • Cerebrum: higher brain function; thought and action • Frontal Lobe: reasoning/problem-solving; judgment; impulses; motor control; memory • Parietal Lobe: processes pain and touch sensation; cognition (mental activities) • Occipital Lobe: visual sensation and processing • Temporal Lobe: processes sound and language; emotion; memory; and speech 2 1 3 4
The Forebrain • Thalamus: sends signals to other parts of the brain; motor control • Hypothalamus: temperature; apetite; thirst; sleep • Cerebral Cortex: “grey matter”; covers the cerebrum and cerebellum; processing information • Corpus Callosum: connects the two hemispheres (halves) of the brain
The Forebrain • Limbic System: emotions; motivation; emotional ties to memory • Hippocampus: short- and long-term memory indexing (processing); affected severely by Alzheimer’s disease • Amygdala: conditioned learning, especially fear/anger/rage • Olfactory Bulb: sense of smell; connected to amygdala • That’s why scents can bring back vivid memories!
The Forebrain • Pituitary Gland: growth during childhood; temperature; thyroid function; urine production; testosterone production in males and ovulation/estrogen production in females • Pineal Gland: controls sleep/wake cycles via melatonin production
The Midbrain • Portion of the Brainstem: connects the forebrain and hindbrain • Involved in auditory and visual responses; motor function
The Hindbrain • Pons: arousal, consciousness, and sleep • Cerebellum: controls movement; posture; balance • Medulla Oblongata: automatic functions like breathing, heart rate, and digestion
Spinal Cord • Cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers that connects to the brain