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Memory. Short-Term Memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the information is forgotten Long-Term Memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system Memory Championships, pi , test your memory.

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memory
Memory
  • Short-Term Memory
    • activated memory that holds a few items briefly
    • look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the information is forgotten
  • Long-Term Memory
    • the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
    • Memory Championships, pi, test your memory
memory1
Memory
  • Sensory Memory
    • the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
  • Working Memory
    • focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information
a simplified memory model
Attention to important

or novel information

Sensory input

Encoding

External

events

Sensory

memory

Short-term

memory

Long-term

memory

Encoding

Retrieving

A Simplified Memory Model
encoding
Encoding
  • Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables
    • TUV ZOF GEK WAV
    • the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2
  • Spacing Effect
    • distributed practice yields better long- term retention than massed practice
encoding1
Time in minutes

taken to relearn

list on day 2

20

15

10

5

0

8

16

24

32

42

53

64

Number of repetitions of list on day 1

Encoding
encoding serial position effect
90

Percentage of

words recalled

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Position of word in list

Encoding: Serial Position Effect

Serial Position Effect--tendency to recall best the last items in a list

what do we encode
What Do We Encode?
  • Semantic Encoding
    • encoding of meaning
    • including meaning of words
  • Acoustic Encoding
    • encoding of sound
    • especially sound of words
  • Visual Encoding
    • encoding of picture images
encoding3
Encoding

(automatic

or effortful)

Meaning

(semantic

Encoding)

Imagery

(visual

Encoding)

Organization

Chunks

Hierarchies

Encoding
  • Hierarchies
    • complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories
storage sensory memory
Storage:Sensory Memory
  • Iconic Memory
    • a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
    • a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more that a few tenths of a second
    • Tests of George Sperling
  • Echoic Memory
    • momentary (3-4 sec) sensory memory of auditory stimuli
storage short term memory
Percentage

who recalled

consonants

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

3

6

9

12

15

18

Time in seconds between presentation

of contestants and recall request

(no rehearsal allowed)

Storage:Short-Term Memory
  • Short-Term Memory
    • limited in duration and capacity
    • “magical” number 7+/-2

(Miller, 1956)

storage long term memory
Storage:Long-Term Memory
  • How does storage work?
    • Karl Lashley (1950) – Searching for “engrams”
      • rats learn maze
      • lesion cortex
      • test memory
  • Synaptic changes – “The Brain” Clip
    • Long-term Potentiation (LTP)
      • increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
  • Strong emotions make for stronger memories
stress hormones and memory
Stress Hormones and Memory
  • Stress hormones aide memory
    • Hormone surge alert brain that something important has happened.
      • Physical or psychological pain, trauma create surge
      • Rat study – shot of hormones with a leg shock
        • Creates a very strong memory
    • Biological evidence for why emotional memories are stronger.
stress hormones and memory1
Stress Hormones and Memory
  • Stress hormones block and destroy memory
    • Prolonged stress corrodes neural connections
    • Memories can be blocked by stress hormones
      • Rats trying to find a hidden target
      • Public speaking
storage long term memory1
Storage:Long-Term Memory
  • Amnesia--the loss of memory
    • Retrograde Amnesia – mass forgetting of old information
    • Antrograde Amnesia – inability to form new memories
      • Oliver Sacks – “Jimmie” (earth from the moon example), H.M., Clive Wearing
    • Childhood Amnesia – Why? (3 min)
  • Amnesiacs demonstrate 2 forms of memory…
storage long term memory2
Storage:Long-Term Memory
  • Amnesiacs
    • Deny having seen an article and then read it faster
    • Deny abilities to solve puzzle then complete it easily
    • Childhood Amnesia – must have implicit memory in tact
  • Explicit Memory (Declarative Memory)
    • memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”
      • Episodic Memory – personally experienced events
      • Semantic Memory – facts, general knowledge
  • Implicit Memory (Non-declarative Memory)
    • retention independent of conscious recollection
    • Skills (procedural memory), classical-conditioned responses
storage long term memory subsystems
Types of

long-term

memories

Explicit

(declarative)

With conscious

recall

Implicit

(nondeclarative)

Without conscious

recall

Personally

experienced

events

(“episodic

memory”)

Dispositions-

classical and

operant

conditioning

effects

Facts-general

knowledge

(“semantic

memory”)

Skills-motor

and cognitive

Storage: Long-Term Memory Subsystems
storage long term memory3
HippocampusStorage:Long-Term Memory
  • hippocampus--neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
  • Processes explicit memories – then sent to multiple different regions.
storage long term memory4
Storage:Long-Term Memory
  • Cerebellum
    • Process implicit

memories

Ex: classical-

conditioned eye-

blink disappears

when you remove

cerebellum

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