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Measuring Intelligence

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  1. Measuring Intelligence • Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale • mental age • Terman • intelligence quotient (IQ) • IQ=MA/CA x 100 • Standardized Intelligence Tests • Stanford-Binet • Wechsler Tests

  2. Verbal Scale • General Information • Similarities • Arithmetic Reasoning • Vocabulary • Comprehension • Digit Span

  3. Performance Scale

  4. Normal Distribution of IQ

  5. Mental Retardation • Significantly subaverage level of intellectual functioning which occurs with related limitations in two or more skill areas. • Mild mental retardation • Moderate mental retardation • Severe/profound mental retardation

  6. Causes of Mental Retardation • Organic retardation • Cultural-familial retardation

  7. Intellectually Gifted • Individuals characterized by higher than average intelligence (IQ>130). Usually also have some superior talent or skill.

  8. Intelligence in Infancy • Developmental tests • Gesell Developmental Schedules • Bayley Scales of Infant Development - II • poor predictors of later intelligence • Habituation

  9. Intelligence in Childhood • Considerable variability in IQ across childhood • Cumulative-deficit hypothesis • IQ stabilizes during adolescence

  10. Development of Mathematical Skills • Newborns have rudimentary skills – can distinguish between 2 and 3 object (habituation) • Preschoolers – learning to count • Age 4 – simple arithmetic; counting strategies • Strategy choice model: children tend to choose the fastest approach that they can execute accurately

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ACADEMIC SKILLS: Mathematics • In first months after birth, infants can distinguish between small sets of objects • Infants may enumerate small sets by subitizing: perceptual process where people quickly and easily determine how many objects are in a small set without actually counting them. • From age two, children begin to associate words used in language with number of objects • Language differences affect learning to count and understanding place value, which affects development of other math skills

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ACADEMIC SKILLS: Mathematics • At about age four, children develop countingstrategies • In elementary school, children improve efficiency of strategies • Gradually come to store basic math facts and simply retrieve from memory • Strategy choice model may explain how memorized and retrieved

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ACADEMIC SKILLS: Reading • Chall (1983) proposed six developmental stages for reading • Estimated that 25% of Americans are poor readers and 38% of fourth graders score below grade level • Two factors that best predict success in early reading are familiarity with letters of the alphabet and phonemic awareness

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ACADEMIC SKILLS:Reading • Good readers tend to read more, further enhancing reading skills and facilitating cognitive development • Parent-child reading during preschool years has both direct andindirect effects

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ACADEMIC SKILLS:Writing • Reading and writing skills highly correlated • Similar progressions developmentally • Inventive spellings associated with later success in conventional spelling, word recognition, reading fluency • Young writers engage in knowledge telling • Older childrenspend more time onplanning and revising