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1. 2. 3. 4. Job Processes. Facilities organized by process. Similar processes or equipment grouped together. ( Example: All drill presses are together.) Products follow many different paths. Hospital. Machine Shop. Jobbing Processes Examples. Batch processes

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job processes
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2

3

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Job Processes
  • Facilities organized by process.
    • Similar processes or equipment grouped together. (Example: All drill presses are together.)
  • Products follow many different paths.
slide3
Batch processes

Batch processes can often look like jobbing processes, but batch does not have quite the degree of variety associated jobbing. As the name implies, each time batch processes produce a product they produce more than one. So each part of the operation has periods when it is repeating itself, at least while the batch is being processed.

Example of batch processes include machine tool manufacturing, the production of components parts which go into mass-product assemblies such as automobiles, and the production of most clothing.

batch processes
Batch Processes
  • Facilities often organized by assembly lines.
  • Characterized by modules.
    • Parts & assemblies made previously.
  • Modules combined for many output options.
batch processes examples
Fast Food

Clothes Dryer

McDonald’sover 95 billion served

Truck

Batch Processes - Examples
slide7
Mass Processes

Mass processes are those which produce goods in high volume and relatively narrow variety. An automobile plant, for example, might produce several thousand variants of car if every option of engine size, colour, extra equipment etc. is taken into account. Yet essentially it is a mass operation because the different variants of its product do not affect the basic process of production.

(automobile, consumer durable, TV plant, soft drink)

slide8
Soft Drinks

Light Bulbs

Mass Processes

continues processes
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2

3

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Continues Processes
  • High volume, low variety products.
  • Long, continuous production runs.
    • Continuous process manufacturing.

Line Flow

continuous processes
Continuous processes

Continuous processes are one step beyond mass processes insomuch as they operate at even higher volume and often have even lower variety. They also usually operate for longer periods of time. Sometimes they are continuous in that their products are inseparable, being produced in an endless flow.

Examples are petrochemical refineries, electricity utilities, steel making, and some papermaking.

slide13
Process Design

Flexible flows

Process Choice:

Project Process

Project

Process

Job Process

Job

Process

Batch Process

Intermediate

flows

Mass Process

Continuous Process

Batch

Process

Mass

Process

Line flows

Continuous

Process

Low

Volume

High

slide14
Process types in manufacturing

High

Project

Jobbing

Batch

Variety

Mass

Continuous

Low

Low

Volume

High

slide15
Process types in service operations

Professional services

Professional services are defined as high contact organisations where customers spend a considerable time in the service process. Such services provide high levels of customization, the service process being highly adaptable in order to meet individual customer needs. Examples are Professional services like management consultants, lawyers, doctors, architects etc.,

Mass services

Mass services have many customer transactions, involving limited contact time and little customization. Such services are often predominantly equipment-based and product oriented. Examples are rail services, supermarket, airport.

slide16
Service shops

Service shops are characterized by levels of customer contact, customization, volumes of customers and staff discretion, which position them between the extremes of professional and mass services. Service shop include banks, high street shops, holiday tour operators, car rental companies, schools, most restaurants, hotels and travel agents.

slide17
Process types in services

High

Professional services

Service Shops

Variety

Mass Services

Low

Low

Volume

High

measuring process performance
Measuring Process Performance
  • Throughput Time
  • Process Velocity
  • Productivity
  • Utilisation
  • Efficiency
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