The Rise of Rome. The Roman Army. All male citizens required to serve in army; couldn’t hold public office until one had served in the army for at least ten years. Legion = 4,000-6,000/ infantry & cavalry; divided in 60 smaller groups called a century. More flexible than the Greek phalanx.
All male citizens required to serve in army; couldn’t hold public office until one had served in the army for at least ten years.
Legion= 4,000-6,000/ infantry & cavalry; divided in 60 smaller groups called a century.
More flexible than the Greek phalanx.
1. The Consul= two consuls took the place of a king; commanded the army and directed the government. Could only serve for one year and one could overrule (veto) the other.
2. Assembly= all citizen-soldiers were members.
3. Dictator= in times of crises; absolute power to make laws and command the army, but for only 6 months.
4. Senate= aristocratic branch; membership for life.
1. The Gauls sacked Rome and left it in ruins around 390 BC.
2. The Romans recovered quickly and would not be sacked again for around 800 years.
3. The Greeks under Pyrrhus brought 20,000 soldiers to fight. However, the Greeks suffer terrible loses.
1. Rome and Carthage would go to war for control of Sicily around 264 BC causing the 1st Punic War.
2. Carthage had: 3 times the population of Rome, 500 navy ships, and more resources.
3. Rome had: a small population, no navy, and less resources.
4. Carthaginian warship washed up on Italian shore. Rome copies the design and creates their own navy. Win the first two naval battles.
5. Carthage is defeated after 23 years ending Carthage’s sea power & Rome takes control of Sicily.
1. Carthage is led by Hannibal, who creates one of the greatest militaries of all time.
2. Traveled up and down the Italian Peninsula for 13 years defeating three Roman armies.
3. The Roman leader Scipio attacks Carthage causing Hannibal to rush home and help.
4. Battle of Zama= Scipio defeats Hannibal ending the 2nd Punic War. Hannibal later kills himself to avoid capture.
1. The Romans still hold hostilities toward Carthage.
2. Romans completely destroyed & burned Carthage between 149-146 BC.
3. Rome wins the Punic Wars over Carthage.