Eye and Vision Screening Procedures, Part 5. Department of Blind and Vision Impaired Created by Carmen Valdes & Lisa Shearman. Eye and Vision Screening Procedures. Learning Objectives for Part 5: 1. Methods for testing vision for infants and toddlers. Testing eyes for near fixation.
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Department of Blind and Vision Impaired
Created by Carmen Valdes & Lisa Shearman
The Near Fixation (at 8-18 inches) tests the child’s eyes while focusing on an object or light. The examiner notes whether the child alternates, prefers fixation with one eye, or can hold fixation well with either eye.
Type of object to use:
4x5 inch object at 2 months old
1 inch object at 4 months old
Cereal at 6 months old
The Distance Fixation (at 10 feet) tests the child’s eyes while focusing on an object or light.
Type of object to use:
4 inch object at 9 months old
Pass: Steady fixation
Refer: Fleeting or not able to fixate
50 degrees either side of midline horizontally at 12 inches in front of the child’s eyes
30 degrees above and below midline vertically
Full 180 degree arc with smooth transition over midline
Full 180 degree arc without moving the head
Testing for eye preference can consist of refusal of the child to have the right eye covered while not objecting to having the left eye covered is interpreted as evidence for reduced visual acuity in the left eye. An example of preference is when the child consistently turns head to use one eye to look at objects.
There should be no eye preference
Pass: No eye preference Refer: Demonstrate a preference
First Look, Vision Evaluation and Assessment for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers, Birth Through Five years of Age, (1998) California Department of Education, Sacramento, California,
Appleby K., M.A., (2002) Vision Assessment of Infants and Children with and without Special Needs, Parts1 & 2, Vision Associates, Lake City, Florida
Smith Millie, and Levack Nancy, (1996) Teaching Students with Visual and Multiple Impairments, A Resource Guide, Second Edition, Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Austin, Texas
Essential Elements in Early Intervention, Visual Impairments and Multiple Disabilities, (1999) Chen, Deborah, Ph.D., editor, American Foundation for the Blind, New York, N.Y.
Anthony Tanni, Story Andrea, and PattersonJames Dr., Vision Screening for Young Children Early Intervention Programs, Developed by the Vision Impairment Services for Infants and Toddlers Program, Anchorage, Alaska )
Bishop Virginia E. Ph.D., (1998), Infants and Toddlers with Visual Impairments, http://www.tsbvi.edu/Education/infant/
LH MATERIALS , Assessment of Vision in Children By (2001) Lea Hyvärinen, MD
This completes the training for Visual Screening.