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Multiple Intelligences. Kristine Maher, Susan Moore, Erin Fitze, Jamie Wood and Merrissa Jordan Professor Phyllis Burger ED 509 April 23, 2012. Multiple Intelligences (MI) by Howard Gardner.

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multiple intelligences

Multiple Intelligences

Kristine Maher, Susan Moore, Erin Fitze, Jamie Wood and Merrissa Jordan

Professor Phyllis Burger ED 509

April 23, 2012

multiple intelligences mi by howard gardner
Multiple Intelligences (MI) by Howard Gardner

The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability. The eight intelligences are:

Visual/Spatial Verbal/Linguistic Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical/Rhythmic

Interpersonal Intrapersonal

Logical/Mathematical Naturalistic

multiple intelligences defined
Multiple Intelligences Defined

1.Logical-mathematical-consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner's words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.

2.Spatial-involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas.

3.Linguistic-involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence.

4.Bodily-kinesthetic-entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related.

multiple intelligences defined continued
Multiple Intelligences Defined-continued

5.Musical-involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence.

6.Interpersonal-is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.

7.Intrapersonal-entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives.

8.Naturalistic-these persons tend to be very close to the natural environment. Those with this intelligence tend to be able to categorize things in nature easily. These persons strive to include connections to the natural environment in whatever they pursue.

logical mathematical
Logical Mathematical

Logical/ Mathematical learners do well with analyzing information. They learn best by:

  • Solving open ended questions
  • Looking for rational explanations
  • Organizing their information
  • Setting goals or milestones to show their progress

Classroom activities for Logical/ Mathematical Learners:

  • Organizing information into categories, solving puzzles, Lab work
visual spatial intelligence
Visual/Spatial Intelligence

Students with spatial strengths are not identified through standardized testing. Research suggests along with and in addition to Gardner’s MI Assessment, to also evaluate through multiple means as in:

  • journals
  • curriculum-based assessments
  • artifact collection and portfolios
  • individual learning contracts
  • real-world assessment
  • performance and demonstration.
visual spatial learners prefer and often need
Visual/Spatial Learners prefer and often need:
  • Graphic organizers
  • To do artwork to support content
  • Diagrams
  • Pictures
  • Mind-mapping
  • Creative visualization
  • Field trips
visual spatial learners continued
Visual/Spatial Learners Continued

Spatial or visual learners often do less well with traditional teacher-centered or lecture format instruction. And, if a student might be twice exceptional; if they have an auditory processing delay for example, then visual teaching can aid them tremendously. Important innovators such as in engineering, in the scientists and many artists don’t do so well on standardized testing, but are quite gifted spatially/visually. The work-force most definitely needs spatial learners to develop their skill and interests for future new discoveries, inventions and achievements for our country.

The size of visuals can even impact learners to a certain age; according to one study. Pattern recognition and its uses, are very important in the math and sciences and also in creating harmony and unity in works of art. Spatial/visual learners also need certain techniques to facilitate learning, such as: graphic organizers, artwork,diagrams, pictures/ photographic images, mind-mapping, creative visualization and hands-on experiences like field trips.

We also know that keeping students engaged and interested is key to retaining information, for deeper understanding and transfer of knowledge to other contexts. Most experts do agree that MI is a useful teaching tool and can provide learners excellent supports for learning and for high-level production of work. The following research summaries help support these findings.

linguistic auditory learners
Linguistic/Auditory Learners

Linguistic learners are easily able to understand and interpret languages. They are auditory learners who understand information the best through:

    • 1. Listening to lectures
    • 2. Speaking to other individuals and hearing tone, pitch, and inflection in speech
    • 3. Often think in words rather than pictures
  • Students who have linguistic intelligence excel at the following:
    • Speaking, humor, telling stories, proving a point, remembering specific information, and analysis of the use of language.
bodily kinesthetic learners
Bodily/Kinesthetic Learners
  • Are adept atusing the body to play games and express themselves through drama or plays
  • Love activity and movement
  • Tend to have good gross and fine motor skills
  • Learn through touch and feel
  • They typically remember how to “do” something after doing it once
  • Tend to be well coordinated
  • Have a lot of energy and typically do not like to sit for too long
  • Respond to teachers who offer hands-on activities
  • Respond to assessments where manipulatives, writing/drawing and/or drama are used
musical rhythmic learners
Musical/Rhythmic Learners
  • Musical learners show sensitivity to rhythm, melody, and sound.
  • They may excel at:
    • Playing an instrument
    • Notice non-verbal sounds in the environment
    • Learn more easily if sung, tapped out or music is used when learning new material
  • Musical learners also:
    • Speak or move in rhythmical ways
    • Study with music in the background
    • Show aptitude with musical instruments
interpersonal learners
Interpersonal Learners

Interpersonal learners work well with others and are natural leaders and communicators. They learn best by:

  • Working in groups
  • Teaching others
  • Participating in competition
  • Communicating with others

Classroom activities for Interpersonal Learners:

  • Debates, group presentations, Skits
intrapersonal learners
Intrapersonal Learners

Intrapersonal learners have a great understanding of themselves. They learn best by:

  • Working independently
  • Completing self-assessments
  • Creating their own goals

Classroom activities for Intrapersonal Learners:

  • Journals, assessing their own assignments, research papers
naturalistic learners
Naturalistic Learners

Naturalistic learners are highly connected with what is going on in their environment. These learners are interested in exploring and interacting with nature.

  • Enjoying learning about animals, plants, trees, etcetera
  • Highly concerned with conservationist issues
  • Not very interested in activities that do not concern interacting with the environment
  • Very observant of their surroundings
  • Ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals)
  • Sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations)
spatial visual intelligence annotated bibliography susan moore
Spatial/Visual Intelligence-Annotated Bibliography Susan Moore

Burke, D., Hill, A. L., (1971). Apparent visual size as a function of age, intelligence, and a surrounding frame of reference for normal and mentally retarded subjects.Developmental Psychology, 5(2), p. 349.

Evaluative Summary

This is a study of ability to compare and match multiple sized-shapes shown in both ascending then again in descending order. A single group of students with developmental disabilities (referred to as “retarded subjects” in this older article) were tested with one or more traditional students (“normal subjects” in article) totaling 45 subjects. Since there may have been various reference factors in the room where the tests took place, the results tend to be looked at as somewhat unreliable. The frame of reference has a “powerful affect in perception”. However, it is thought that clear progression of accuracy was demonstrated with younger students to age 10, where it then leveled off; “Size matches developed rapidly toward constancy until approximately age 10. Thereafter, little further development was evident”. Depending on the accuracy of this test, it may show that size of visuals do matter to younger students until about age 10.

  • Benbow, C. P., Lubinski, D., Shea, D. L., (2001). Importance of Assessing Spatial Ability in Intellectually Talented Young Adolescents: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study. Journal of Educational Psychology; 93(3), p.604.

Evaluative Summary

Spatial “visualization” is left out of standardized testing. This study investigates the importance of identifying spatial abilities in junior high students. There is a noticeable relationship compared to future career development; “clearly, relative to quantitative and verbal ability, spatial ability provides unique information for predicting the educational–vocational tracks that these students self-selected” as they grew older. Many agree “that spatial ability distinguishes group membership and performance in certain artistic, engineering, and scientific disciplines”. And if this [lack of testing of spatial abilities] trend persists we will have major shortages in these innovative careers, which have made America great today. “Participants were 170 girls and 393 boys identified between ages 12 to 14 by the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth. Their overall SAT performance was comparable to that of college-bound high school seniors”. They were retested at several intervals through a 20 year period. “Completing all three follow-ups were 220 males and 101 females”. Studies indicate it would have been and can be very helpful to assist in guidance of students with these abilities.

annotated bibliography continued susan moore
Annotated Bibliography Continued- Susan Moore
  • Fasko Jr., Daniel, (2001).An Analysis of Multiple Intelligences Theory and Its Use with the Gifted and Talented.Roeper Review, 23(3), p.126.

Evaluative Summary

This article reviews/synthesizes literature regarding “Identifying and educating gifted and talented children has been a concern in education for many years. Gardner's (1983) Multiple Intelligences theory has been used in recent years to facilitate the identification and instruction of gifted and talented children”. Standardized testing for GT is limited as they “reflect a narrow definition of intelligence”. Assessments should be varied and done often to help maximize students’ strengths and “maximize each student’s [differentiated] intellectual gain”. Gardner’s argument is that GT testing is too general and there should be many measures utilized and that students can differ widely in the areas they might be considered gifted and talented and that using various and multiple evaluations will identify more GT students. Also, with the multiple- evaluation approach there was a 2% gain in including more socio-economically limited students. Traditional M.I. assessments “does not produce a culturally-diverse group of students. Though there are limitations to show clear support for M.I. testing, teachers do feel they utilize “sensitivity” toward strengths and preferences. Though the authors do warn teachers against becoming “talent developers”. And “from the first day of school, students bring working minds to class [and] the educator's job is to create the best possible working environment for those minds".

annotated bibliography continued susan moore1
Annotated Bibliography Continued- Susan Moore
  • Clinkenbeard, P. & Sternberg, R., (1995). The triarchic model applied to identifying, teaching, and assessing gifted children. Roeper Review, 17(4), p.255. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database.

 Evaluative Summary The article speaks of an example of a small pilot summer program on the usefulness of Triarchic Theory (identification, instruction, and assessment) with gifted high school students. The program evaluates three different abilities in three different content domains. The goal was to demonstrate positive results from Aptitude-Treatment Interactions (ATI’s) and to identify gifted from non-gifted students. Students were divided into three treatment groups. One group consisted of students creatively gifted and were taught with creative-oriented instruction. The other two groups were given the same exact materials but

were instructed in a more traditional manner. Traditional ways of evaluation and instruction are limited especially for those students with varying abilities. Standardized-testing is not necessarily a good assessment for all students. The resulting data does suggest that the first creatively gifted group performed higher than the other two groups.

  • Nevin, A.I., Thousand, J.S., Villa, R.A., (2007). Differentiating Instruction: Collaborative Planning and Teaching for Universally Designed Learning. Corwin Press. p.103.

Evaluative Summary

This textbook discusses how differentiating instruction through the “integration of the arts” is a unique method for teaching and can simultaneously address visual/spatial learner needs. Utilizing music, theatre, dance, and visual arts, can address Multiple Intelligences and provide alternative methods of instruction of concepts. Through the arts, learners can gain knowledge about cultures, geographic areas, foods and important historical events. “Fortunately, curricular reforms have made it possible to think about content in ways that allow students multiple means to access content” which can facilitate interest and provide fun learning.

annotated bibliography erin fitze
Annotated Bibliography Erin Fitze
  • Nesher, P., & Katriel, T. (1986). Learning Numbers: A Linguistic Perspective. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 17(2), p. 100-111.
  • Evaluative Summary
    • This article discusses the language of numbers and the confusion that often comes with them to students who learn best linguistically. All students must be able to transfer their understanding of language to their understanding of numbers but often gifted students find this task to be challenging. First linguistic learners are unclear if numbers should be seen as objects or predicates within the sentence. Gifted students may have issues with mathematical problems because they believe the semantics are not aligning properly. Linguistic learners do excel in mathematics when the numbers are placed into word problems where the language is evident within the context. Overall, linguistic learners may be able to understand numbers and equations if they are able to place them within the proper framework of their language.
annotated bibliography kristine maher
Annotated BibliographyKristine Maher

Standford, P. (2003). Multiple intelligence for every classroom. Intervention in school and clinic, 39(2), 80-85. Retrieved from SAGE Online Journals.

Evaluative Summary

This article discusses the overarching theory for Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences and how they apply to the classroom. The artifact gives classroom teachers strategies, ways to adapt and differentiate curriculum and ways to approach assessments as they relate to the nine multiple intelligences. The ninth intelligence has not received much recognition as of yet; the ninth being existential intelligence.

I chose this article as it clearly and succinctly discusses what classroom teachers need to hear in this day and age of public education. The artifact makes understandable statements in regard to stepping out of the box to teach to the whole child; something I am very passionate about. It talks about stimulating children to learn in the way they learn best. The article also makes approaching assessments in varying ways more manageable; the suggestions include rubrics, logs, graphic organizers, student and teacher checklists and miscue analysis to name a few. Lastly, I chose the article as it gives rubric samples of multiple intelligence activity ideas and a student checklist of strengths a student may have. I believe it is so important for students to have ownership of their education and discovering ways they may learn best can aid in their personal learning journey.

annotated bibliography erin fitze1
Annotated BibliographyErin Fitze
  • Rayneri, L. J., Gerber, B. L., & Wiley, L. P. (2003). Gifted Achievers and Gifted Underachievers: The Impact of Learning Style Preferences in the Classroom. Journal Of Secondary Gifted Education, 14(4), p.197.
  • Evaluative Summary
    • This article analyzes when and why gifted individuals are underachieving in the classroom. The study proved that students are seen to begin underachieving during the middle school years since there are less options for acceleration. Learning styles were decided on by various inventories; including family surveys, Learning Style Inventory (LSI), yet 60% of learning styles were found to be biological. Students in middle school were often required to have less flexibility with material and utilize understanding only through kinesthetic, tactile learning that may not be the best for all gifted students. Many gifted students were proven to learn best by using the left part of their brain, which is the linguistic and auditory section when given multiple tests. Overall the article proved that students need to continue to have the option of taking accelerated classes that incorporate linguistic and auditory learning.
annotated bibliography jamie wood
Annotated BibliographyJamie Wood
  • Mills, Susan. (2001). The Role of Musical Intelligences in a Multiple Intelligences Focused Elementary School. International Journal of Education and the Arts, 2(4).
  • This journal article discussed how important musical intelligence is in student’s education curriculum. The article talked about how elementary students should be given their instruction using all of the Multiple Intelligences.  This Multiple Intelligences (MI) School understands that Howard Gardner did not want MI to be the basis of education but they feel it is the basis of how students are going to learn better. Standardized tests are believed to only test the aptitude of students Verbal and Mathematical Intelligence. This study took a look at how Musical Intelligence can help students learn. Music is often looked at as a talent not and intelligence which researches see as the problem. The article continues with a discussion how MI is the same as knowing what a students learning style is. Gardner defined musical intelligence as an ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timbre or appreciation of the forms of musical expressiveness. Music can help students learn by simply having music on in the background to help them take in information. They found that Musical Intelligence is as important as other intelligences but teachers need to expose students to all intelligences to help them learn. 
annotated bibliography merrissa jordan mclean
Annotated Bibliography Merrissa Jordan McLean

Shepard, R, Fasko, D., & Osborne F. H. (Summer 1999) Intrapersonal intelligence: Affective factors in thinking. Education , 119, 4. ProQuest Education Journals

Evaluative summary: This article stresses the importance of intrapersonal intelligence. Shepard et al. rely heavily on Howard Gardner’s definition of intrapersonal intelligence. The authors state that while most educational practices focus more on logical and linguistic intelligences, it may be intrapersonal intelligences that should be further developed in every student. Shepard et al state that it is qualities such as self-discipline ‘that allow a person of lesser innate capabilities to be able to compete with those predisposed with more natural talent’. The authors’ conclusion is that it should become the responsibility of the educational system to help students gain a better sense of self.

annotated bibliography merrissa jordan mclean1
Annotated BibliographyMerrissa Jordan McLean

Hayes, M. A. (October 01, 2009). Into the field: naturalistic education and the future of conservation. Conservation biology, 23, 5, 1075-1079.

  • Evaluative summary: Hayes discusses how best to foster learning in students interested in science and are naturalistic learners. He states that students should get out into their environments and get involved in conservation. By doing this teachers ‘will be providing their students with a naturalistic education and in so doing will be developing the future of conservation’. Hayes believes that the true way to develop naturalistic intelligence is to get the students out of the classroom and into nature.