Multiple Intelligences. Kristine Maher, Susan Moore, Erin Fitze, Jamie Wood and Merrissa Jordan Professor Phyllis Burger ED 509 April 23, 2012. Multiple Intelligences (MI) by Howard Gardner.
Kristine Maher, Susan Moore, Erin Fitze, Jamie Wood and Merrissa Jordan
Professor Phyllis Burger ED 509
April 23, 2012
The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability. The eight intelligences are:
Visual/Spatial Verbal/Linguistic Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical/Rhythmic
1.Logical-mathematical-consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner's words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.
2.Spatial-involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas.
3.Linguistic-involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence.
4.Bodily-kinesthetic-entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related.
5.Musical-involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence.
6.Interpersonal-is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.
7.Intrapersonal-entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives.
8.Naturalistic-these persons tend to be very close to the natural environment. Those with this intelligence tend to be able to categorize things in nature easily. These persons strive to include connections to the natural environment in whatever they pursue.
Logical/ Mathematical learners do well with analyzing information. They learn best by:
Classroom activities for Logical/ Mathematical Learners:
Students with spatial strengths are not identified through standardized testing. Research suggests along with and in addition to Gardner’s MI Assessment, to also evaluate through multiple means as in:
Spatial or visual learners often do less well with traditional teacher-centered or lecture format instruction. And, if a student might be twice exceptional; if they have an auditory processing delay for example, then visual teaching can aid them tremendously. Important innovators such as in engineering, in the scientists and many artists don’t do so well on standardized testing, but are quite gifted spatially/visually. The work-force most definitely needs spatial learners to develop their skill and interests for future new discoveries, inventions and achievements for our country.
The size of visuals can even impact learners to a certain age; according to one study. Pattern recognition and its uses, are very important in the math and sciences and also in creating harmony and unity in works of art. Spatial/visual learners also need certain techniques to facilitate learning, such as: graphic organizers, artwork,diagrams, pictures/ photographic images, mind-mapping, creative visualization and hands-on experiences like field trips.
We also know that keeping students engaged and interested is key to retaining information, for deeper understanding and transfer of knowledge to other contexts. Most experts do agree that MI is a useful teaching tool and can provide learners excellent supports for learning and for high-level production of work. The following research summaries help support these findings.
Linguistic learners are easily able to understand and interpret languages. They are auditory learners who understand information the best through:
Interpersonal learners work well with others and are natural leaders and communicators. They learn best by:
Classroom activities for Interpersonal Learners:
Intrapersonal learners have a great understanding of themselves. They learn best by:
Classroom activities for Intrapersonal Learners:
Naturalistic learners are highly connected with what is going on in their environment. These learners are interested in exploring and interacting with nature.
Burke, D., Hill, A. L., (1971). Apparent visual size as a function of age, intelligence, and a surrounding frame of reference for normal and mentally retarded subjects.Developmental Psychology, 5(2), p. 349.
This is a study of ability to compare and match multiple sized-shapes shown in both ascending then again in descending order. A single group of students with developmental disabilities (referred to as “retarded subjects” in this older article) were tested with one or more traditional students (“normal subjects” in article) totaling 45 subjects. Since there may have been various reference factors in the room where the tests took place, the results tend to be looked at as somewhat unreliable. The frame of reference has a “powerful affect in perception”. However, it is thought that clear progression of accuracy was demonstrated with younger students to age 10, where it then leveled off; “Size matches developed rapidly toward constancy until approximately age 10. Thereafter, little further development was evident”. Depending on the accuracy of this test, it may show that size of visuals do matter to younger students until about age 10.
Spatial “visualization” is left out of standardized testing. This study investigates the importance of identifying spatial abilities in junior high students. There is a noticeable relationship compared to future career development; “clearly, relative to quantitative and verbal ability, spatial ability provides unique information for predicting the educational–vocational tracks that these students self-selected” as they grew older. Many agree “that spatial ability distinguishes group membership and performance in certain artistic, engineering, and scientific disciplines”. And if this [lack of testing of spatial abilities] trend persists we will have major shortages in these innovative careers, which have made America great today. “Participants were 170 girls and 393 boys identified between ages 12 to 14 by the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth. Their overall SAT performance was comparable to that of college-bound high school seniors”. They were retested at several intervals through a 20 year period. “Completing all three follow-ups were 220 males and 101 females”. Studies indicate it would have been and can be very helpful to assist in guidance of students with these abilities.
This article reviews/synthesizes literature regarding “Identifying and educating gifted and talented children has been a concern in education for many years. Gardner's (1983) Multiple Intelligences theory has been used in recent years to facilitate the identification and instruction of gifted and talented children”. Standardized testing for GT is limited as they “reflect a narrow definition of intelligence”. Assessments should be varied and done often to help maximize students’ strengths and “maximize each student’s [differentiated] intellectual gain”. Gardner’s argument is that GT testing is too general and there should be many measures utilized and that students can differ widely in the areas they might be considered gifted and talented and that using various and multiple evaluations will identify more GT students. Also, with the multiple- evaluation approach there was a 2% gain in including more socio-economically limited students. Traditional M.I. assessments “does not produce a culturally-diverse group of students. Though there are limitations to show clear support for M.I. testing, teachers do feel they utilize “sensitivity” toward strengths and preferences. Though the authors do warn teachers against becoming “talent developers”. And “from the first day of school, students bring working minds to class [and] the educator's job is to create the best possible working environment for those minds".
Evaluative Summary The article speaks of an example of a small pilot summer program on the usefulness of Triarchic Theory (identification, instruction, and assessment) with gifted high school students. The program evaluates three different abilities in three different content domains. The goal was to demonstrate positive results from Aptitude-Treatment Interactions (ATI’s) and to identify gifted from non-gifted students. Students were divided into three treatment groups. One group consisted of students creatively gifted and were taught with creative-oriented instruction. The other two groups were given the same exact materials but
were instructed in a more traditional manner. Traditional ways of evaluation and instruction are limited especially for those students with varying abilities. Standardized-testing is not necessarily a good assessment for all students. The resulting data does suggest that the first creatively gifted group performed higher than the other two groups.
This textbook discusses how differentiating instruction through the “integration of the arts” is a unique method for teaching and can simultaneously address visual/spatial learner needs. Utilizing music, theatre, dance, and visual arts, can address Multiple Intelligences and provide alternative methods of instruction of concepts. Through the arts, learners can gain knowledge about cultures, geographic areas, foods and important historical events. “Fortunately, curricular reforms have made it possible to think about content in ways that allow students multiple means to access content” which can facilitate interest and provide fun learning.
Standford, P. (2003). Multiple intelligence for every classroom. Intervention in school and clinic, 39(2), 80-85. Retrieved from SAGE Online Journals.
This article discusses the overarching theory for Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences and how they apply to the classroom. The artifact gives classroom teachers strategies, ways to adapt and differentiate curriculum and ways to approach assessments as they relate to the nine multiple intelligences. The ninth intelligence has not received much recognition as of yet; the ninth being existential intelligence.
I chose this article as it clearly and succinctly discusses what classroom teachers need to hear in this day and age of public education. The artifact makes understandable statements in regard to stepping out of the box to teach to the whole child; something I am very passionate about. It talks about stimulating children to learn in the way they learn best. The article also makes approaching assessments in varying ways more manageable; the suggestions include rubrics, logs, graphic organizers, student and teacher checklists and miscue analysis to name a few. Lastly, I chose the article as it gives rubric samples of multiple intelligence activity ideas and a student checklist of strengths a student may have. I believe it is so important for students to have ownership of their education and discovering ways they may learn best can aid in their personal learning journey.
Shepard, R, Fasko, D., & Osborne F. H. (Summer 1999) Intrapersonal intelligence: Affective factors in thinking. Education , 119, 4. ProQuest Education Journals
Evaluative summary: This article stresses the importance of intrapersonal intelligence. Shepard et al. rely heavily on Howard Gardner’s definition of intrapersonal intelligence. The authors state that while most educational practices focus more on logical and linguistic intelligences, it may be intrapersonal intelligences that should be further developed in every student. Shepard et al state that it is qualities such as self-discipline ‘that allow a person of lesser innate capabilities to be able to compete with those predisposed with more natural talent’. The authors’ conclusion is that it should become the responsibility of the educational system to help students gain a better sense of self.
Hayes, M. A. (October 01, 2009). Into the field: naturalistic education and the future of conservation. Conservation biology, 23, 5, 1075-1079.