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EMF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OVERVIEW

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  1. INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNIONTelecommunications Development Bureau (BDT)REGIONAL OFFICE FOR AFRICA EMF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OVERVIEW Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  2. Introduction Exposure fundamentals K.52 Exposure Classification Mitigation/avoidance Techniques Conclusion Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  3. INTRODUCTION • EMF (Electro-Magnetic Field) - Combined electric and magnetic field components of a radio wave. - Our society is swarming with radio waves. - The EMF emissions the society is exposed to has been rising significantly by factors of thousands since the second World War. Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  4. There are waves from difference sources which are used by individual, industry and commercial purposes. These include; Radio and TV transmitter stations/towers, radio, television computers microwaves and cell phones, cell sites,mobile phones, cordless phones, microwave ovens, radars, portable phones, other equipment used in industry, medicine, commerce etc. Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  5. Technologies changing the way to do business,made our life richer and easier. • Modern society is inconceivable without computers, television and radio. • Mobile phones have greatly enhanced the ability of individuals to communicate with each other and have facilitated the dispatch emergency medical and police aid to persons in both urban and rural environment. • Radars make air travelling much safer Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  6. These technologies have brought with them concerns about possible health risks associated with their use. - Safety of cellular mobile phones, electric power lines and police speed-control (radar guns) - could have adverse health effects, such as cancer, reduced fertility, memory loss, adverse changes in child behaviour and development. However, the actual level of health risk is not known, although for certain types of EMF, at levels found in the community, it may be very low or non-existent. Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  7. Exposure Fundamentals Types of exposure - Controlled/occupational exposure - General population/ uncontrolled exposure (also known as general public exposure) Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  8. Exposure Fundamentals Exposure limits - Reference: - ICNIRP (International Commission on Non- Ionizing Radiation Protection) - Guidelines published in 1998 by ICNIRP - World Health Organization endorsement, international acceptance. - Basic restrictions, reference levels Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  9. Exposure Fundamentals • If the EMF exposure assessment indicates that acceptable exposure limits may be exceeded in areas where people may be present, mitigation/ avoidance measures should be applied. • Assessment should be performed as part of planning, licensing or commissioning Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  10. K.52 Exposure Classification • Compliance zone - Potential exposure to EMF is below the applicable limits. • Occupational zone - Potential exposure to EMF is below the limits for occupational exposure but exceeds the limits for general public exposure. • Exceedance zone - Potential exposure exceeds the limits for both occupational and general public exposure. Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  11. Mitigation/avoidance Techniques • Occupational zone - Restrict access to general public Physical barriers, lockout procedures or adequate signs can accomplish the access restriction. - Workers may be permitted to enter the area Workers entering the occupational zone should be informed. Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  12. Mitigation/avoidance Techniques • Exceedance zone - Restrict access to workers and the general public If workers need to enter the area, take steps to control their exposure. 1. Temporarily reduce the power of the emitter, 2. Controlling the duration of exposure so that time-averaged exposure is within safety limits, 3. Use shielding or protective clothing Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  13. Conclusion • Measures to significantly reduce electric and magnetic fields in the environment, below what is now commonly accepted may be costly. • It has been estimated that concerns about EMF and health are now costing the United states economy alone some US$1 billion annually (Fact sheet N181 Reviewed may 1998). • However, if unacceptable health risks do occur, costly prevention measures will be required. Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  14. Emission • Electromagnetic energy propagated from a source by radiation or conduction which may be either desired or undesired, harmful or non harmful and may occur anywhere in the electromagnetic spectrum. • That is why governments all over the world regulate and limit electromagnetic radiation of devices and sources mentioned. Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int

  15. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION Kampala, Uganda 2003 Ms Chali Tumelo ITU Senior Advisor for Network Management And Development for Eastern & Southern Africa Tel: +251 1 514977/514855, Fax: +251 1 517299 E-mail: chali.tumelo@itu.int