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Tree structure. By Edward F. Gilman Department of Environmental Horticulture University of Florida http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/planting. Tree Structure. What’s the Problem?. What is good structure?. Outline of topics. Forest grown vs. open grown tree Codominant stems

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tree structure

Tree structure

By Edward F. Gilman

Department of Environmental Horticulture

University of Florida

http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/planting

tree structure2

Tree Structure

What’s the Problem?

what is good structure
What is good structure?

Outline of topics

  • Forest grown vs. open grown tree
  • Codominant stems
  • Good branch attachment
  • Structurally sound tree
forest grown tree
Forest grown tree

How do they develop on their own?

vs..

Open grown tree

open grown trees
Open grown trees
  • Canopy develops low on the trunk
  • Canopy spreads wide
  • Tree is often wider than tall
slide8

Its party time for all

Its all about access to sunlight

slide12

Hugecrack

Same tree five years later

slide13

“Fall down go boom tree”

Keep an eye on this side of the tree

what is good structure15
What is good structure?

Outline of topics

  • Forest grown vs. open grown tree
  • Codominant stems
  • Good branch attachment
  • Structurally sound tree
slide16

2.Codominant stems

Stems nearly same diameter

slide18

These are weak

“Elephant ears”

Severely acute angle

slide19

Why are they a problem?

Included barkbeginning to form

slide20

Bark inclusion

Decay and

discoloration

from self

wounding

slide21

Bark inclusion

Closed crack indicating inclusion

Near-normal wood formation

slide23

Bark inclusion

(Not a codominant stem!)

what is good structure25
What is good structure?

Outline of topics

  • Forest grown vs. open grown tree
  • Codominant stems
  • Good branch attachment
  • Structurally sound tree
3 good branch attachment
3. Good branch attachment
  • How does a BRANCH form?
  • What are the indicators?
branch bark ridge present
Branch bark ridge present
  • Some branch unions have a prominent branch bark ridge
pine union
Pine union
  • Collar is visible as a swelling at the base of the branch
  • Branch bark ridge (arrows) is visible as a dark, rough bark region on the top and sides of the union
wood orientation at union
Wood orientation at union
  • Peel the bark from the union
  • Note how trunk wood grows out onto the base of the branch (dotted line is edge of trunk wood)
slide35

Strong union

Weak union

what is good structure36
What is good structure?

Outline of topics

  • Forest grown vs. open grown tree
  • Codominant stems
  • Good branch attachment
  • Structurally sound tree
4 structurally sound tree
4. Structurally sound tree
  • Scaffold branches spaced vertically.
    • Rule of thumb: about 5% of tree’s ultimate height.
  • Scaffold branches spaced radially; none directly above another.
  • Consistently maintain 60% L.C.R.
pruning
Pruning –

Is a solution that will be discussed in another presentation.

tree structure41

Tree structure

By Edward F. Gilman

Department of Environmental Horticulture

University of Florida

http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/planting