Expression of an antioxidative enzyme in the normal and pakinsonian brain presented by Simone Abercrombie Bio 475. van Muiswinkel F.L., R. A. I. de Vos, J.M. Bol, G. Andringa, E.H. Jansen Steur, D. Ross, D. Siegel and B. Drukarch. Parkinson’s disease (PD). Neurodegenerative disorder
van Muiswinkel F.L., R. A. I. de Vos, J.M. Bol, G. Andringa, E.H. Jansen Steur, D. Ross, D. Siegel and B. Drukarch
Prototypic dopaminergic terminal with cycle of synthesis, storage, release and removal of dopamine. (Cooper, Bloom & Roth, 1996)
Major neural pathways in normal and Parkinsonian basal ganglia, (Vermeulen, 1994) . The thickness of the arrows represents the strength of the signal.
Inheriting mutated genes are linked to the same genes that are altered sporadically by environmental factors and toxins.
Demographic information, clinical status, and neuropathologial characteristics of contol and PD cases
Severe symptoms: Can still walk to a limited extent no longer able to live alone .
Cachectic stage: Cannot stand or walk. Requires constant nursing care.
1-2: Characterized by an either mild or severe alteration of the transentorhinal layer Pre-alpha
3-4: The two forms of limbic stages (stages III-IV) are marked by a conspicuous affection of layer Pre-alpha in both transentorhinal region and proper entorhinal cortex. In addition, there was mild involvement of the first Ammon's horn sector.Braak stages 1-IVdistribution of neurofibrillary-Accumulation of twisted protein fragments inside nerve cells.
A) SCLC (asterisk) tissue with normal respiratory epithelium (brown); (B and C) non-NSCLC (double asterisks) tissue with scattered coal deposits and normal respiratory epithelium (C, brown); (D) NSCLC tissue immunostained for NQO1 with AEC.
Note: further examination on the basis of early, intermediate or end-stage revealed NQO1 response dissapeared when the loss of neurons has advanced.