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  1. Opposing Idea 1 Idea 1 Idea 4 Supporting Idea 1 Idea 2 Supporting Idea 3 Idea 3 based on 1 and 2 Extension to Idea 1 Supporting Idea 3 Brainstorming

  2. Flow Charts

  3. Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

  4. 0 5 Municipal Water Supply Main Entrance Scale metres Exit Entry N ETP Finished Product Storage Raw Material Storage Quality Control and Final Packaging Administrative Block Utilities 101.5m 30m Stack for emissions Manufacturing Process Line Prod. Capacity 10,000 product items per day Central Highway 05 Toilet Block Laboratories Proposed Production line of capacity 10,000 product items per day 100m 100.5m 101m Plant Layout

  5. Eco-maps

  6. Eco-maps to identify problem areas

  7. Filter Problem Area Plating bath 1 Plating bath 2 Recovery tank Work Jobs Cleaning area Location of spillage during each monitoring Concentration Diagrams

  8. Checksheets Number in a week No. of instances lights were kept on by the customer while leaving the room Number of instances water was left running by the customers Number of customers who demand daily change of room linens, towels…(unused)

  9. Checklists could be developed on the following activities: Monitoring and Maintenance Changing equipment, processes and operations Checklists

  10. Using Checklists as pointers to generate new GP Options Materials and Inventory Meeting environmental compliance Training and Human Resource Development

  11. Material Balance

  12. Steps in Developing Material balance

  13. Considerations in Developing Material balance

  14. Material Balance- Illustration from a textile dyeing mill

  15. Energy Balance

  16. Energy Balance- Illustration from a textile dyeing mill

  17. Material and Energy Balance Illustration from a textile dyeing mill

  18. Cause-Effect Analysis Ishikawa (Fishbone) Diagram

  19. Ishikawa Diagram - Illustration for a Textile Industry

  20. Pareto Diagram

  21. Control Chart

  22. Spider Web Diagram

  23. Failure Mode Effect Analysis GP Option Direct reuse of dyebath Restrict reuse only for disperse dyebaths Problems leading to failure Shades not matching with standard ` Shades not matching with standard Detection 9 9 Likelihood of occurrence 8 3 Cost liability due to failure 8 8 Risk Priority Number 576 216 ` Corrective Measure Restrict reuse only for disperse dyebaths

  24. GP Costs incurred Benefits obtained Profitability Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis • Simple payback; • Net Present Value; • Internal Rate of Return

  25. Example of CBA when there is no Capital Investment Combined Scour-Bleach in a Cotton Textile Unit in Egypt

  26. Example of CBA when there is Capital Investment White Water / Fiber Reuse in Pulp and Paper Industry Annual Savings * $350,670 Financial Indicators Simple Payback period 4.19 years Net Present Value - Years 1-15 $359,544 Internal Rate of Return - Years 1-15 21% *Annual operating cash flow before interest and taxes Capital Costs Saveall Equipment $345,985 Saveall and White Water Pump Materials $374,822 Piping, Electrical, Instruments and Structural Installation $397,148 Engineering $211,046 Contingency $140,403 Equipment Life 15 years Borrowing Rate of Interest 15% Total Capital Costs $1,469,404

  27. To compare operating practices with norms prevalent in the industry the Benchmarking tool could be used: Norms /best practices Actual practice internal i.e., between functions, departments or a similar organization as a means of improving performance; competitive i.e., comparison across industries within a given sector aimed at establishing best practice through identification of gaps in performance. This can be done on product, functional, departmental or on a company-wide basis. comparativei.e., across all business sectors aimed at establishing best practice in all areas of operation (this type of benchmarking is restricted to common processes or technologies (sector non-specific) across business sectors) Benchmarking

  28. For knit fabric industry the following norms are used: Energy consumption 70 MJ / Kg of fabric Dye consumption 4 g/Kg of fabric Water consumption 120 L/Kg of fabric Comparison With Norms to Identify Problem Areas

  29. Benchmarking of Energy Consumption

  30. GP Options Sieve Method to eliminate the most unsuitable Weighted Sum Method to rank the GP options to select the most suitable option Most Suitable GP Option Decision Matrix