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EDLS 618. PRODUCTION & EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL MEDIA. Fall 2009. Unit 2. Development. Module 8: Typography & Design. Key Terms. Typography – The art of letterform Instructional Typography – using letters, words, and passages of text to communicate instructional messages

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unit 2 development

Unit 2. Development

Module 8: Typography & Design

key terms
Key Terms
  • Typography – The art of letterform
  • Instructional Typography – using letters, words, and passages of text to communicate instructional messages
  • Typeface – Formal definition of alphabetical and numerical characters that are unified by consistent visual properties; type is synonymous with typeface
  • Font – A computer-generated typeface for a specific point size; recent interpretation to mean typeface
  • Type Family – The complete array of typeface; e.g., Arial, Times New Roman, Comic Sans Serif, etc.
  • Text – The main body of written or printed material; excludes footnotes, appendices, display elements, etc.
  • Legibility – Degree of ease of reading short segments (bursts) of text
  • Readability – Degree of ease of reading long passages/sections of text

Module 8. Type and Typography

the power of type
The Power of Type
  • Create chunks of information to facilitate comprehension, understanding od directions, procedures, etc.
  • Complex type can express emotion, enhance a message
  • Type has organizational and communicative power
  • Facilitates contrast, alignment, repetition, and proximity

Module 8. Type and Typography

classifications of type
Classifications of Type
  • Classifications of type/fonts is based upon the characteristics of the anatomy of each
  • Type is classified into six groups:
    • Black Letter
    • Roman
    • Square Serif
    • Sans Serif
    • Script
    • Decorative

Module 8. Type and Typography

classifications of type black letter
Classifications of Type: Black Letter
  • One of the oldest type faces
  • Limited application in instruction
    • Primarily used for decoration
    • Drop-cap letters
  • Old Century

Module 8. Type and Typography

classifications of type roman old style modern transitional
Classifications of Type: Roman - Old Style, Modern, Transitional
  • Old Style
    • Considered easy to read
    • Widely used in instructional materials
    • Tapered and slanted serifs, inclined counters
    • Garamond, Times New Roman
  • Modern
    • Striking in appearance, difficult to read in large quantities of text
    • Perpendicular serifs, upright counters, high contrast between lines
    • Bondini
  • Transitional
    • Very readable
    • Share characteristics with Old Style and Modern
    • Centaur

Module 8. Type and Typography

classifications of type square serif
Classifications of Type:Square Serif
  • Similar to Roman typefaces
  • Widely used in educational materials; highly readable
  • Frequently used in children’s books
  • Often darker than others (contrast)
    • Century
    • Georgia (web)

Module 8. Type and Typography

classifications of type sans serif
Classifications of Type: Sans Serif
  • Literally means “without serifs”
  • Considered by some to be more legible for computer-based instruction & presentation than serif types
  • Frequently used as headings in all types of instructional materials
    • Franklin Gothic
    • Trebuchet (screen display)
    • Verdana (screen display)

Module 8. Type and Typography

classifications of type script
Classifications of Type: Script
  • Limited application in instructional materials: difficult to read in text
  • Used to designate different voice
  • Certificates, designate historical periods, ornamentation
  • Cursive
    • Brush Script
    • Lucida calligraphy
    • Freestyle Script

Module 8. Type and Typography

classifications of type decorative symbol
Classifications of Type: Decorative - Symbol
  • Image based typeface – symbols and Dingbats
    • Qwerty
    • Menagerie Dingbats
    • Webdings
    • Wingdings 1 & 2
    • Wingdings 3 (Wingdings 3)

Module 8. Type and Typography

classifications of type decorative display
Classifications of Type: Decorative - Display
  • Used for title, headings, other display purposes
  • Too tiring for lengthy text
  • Create mood, act as metaphors, attract attention
    • Snap ITC
    • Curlz
    • Jokerman
    • Ravie

Module 8. Type and Typography

how do you know what is best
How do you know what is best?

The “It depends…” Rule

  • The learner
  • The content
  • The task
  • The environment
  • Other elements in the visual
  • Your skills and abilities in graphics and design

Module 8. Type and Typography

how do you know what is best14
How do you know what is best?
  • Serif typefaces tend to be recognized as having high readability
  • Sans serif typefaces are typically viewed as being clear and legible
  • Research is inconclusive
  • A bold sans serif typeface used in conjunction with a lighter font provides excellent contrast; facilitates “chunking”

Module 8. Type and Typography

attributes of type
Attributes of Type
  • Ascender – part rising above body
  • Descender – part falling below body
  • Caps height – uppercase letter measured from baseline
  • Ascender height – height of tallest part of letter
  • X-height – height of lower case letter without ascender or descender; the taller the x-height, easier to read (Georgia)
  • Bowl – portion of a letter that encloses a counter
  • Serif – wings
  • Baseline – does not include descenders
  • Cross stroke – horizontal stroke crossing a vertical stroke of a letter

Module 8. Type and Typography

attributes of type cont d
Attributes of Type, cont’d.
  • Counter – enclosed or partially enclosed portion of a type character; width
    • Readability increases as width of counter increases
  • Leading – vertical space between lines of text; a.k.a. line spacing in some computer programs
    • Increase leading to increase interest, attention
  • Kerning – horizontal space between individual letters or characters in a word
    • Used mostly with type sizes 30 points and higher
    • Improves appearance of headings, titles
    • Can enhance readability
    • Makes things “fit” better

Module 8. Type and Typography

type and layout
Type and Layout
  • Alignment: left justified, centered, right justified, justified
  • Line Length
    • dependent upon font, font size, page size, direction, leading
    • Palm width = 4-5”
    • Break line according to logic/content, not formula
  • Type Size
    • 36 points = ½ inch; 72 points = 1 inch
    • X-height and counter size can affect appearance of font even when point size is equal
    • 12 point recommended for print and computer-based instruction
    • 6x6 Rule: projected slide/transparency should have no more than 6 lines of text and no more than 6 words per line
    • Computer screen – view it from 6 feet @ 100%
    • For every 10 feet, increase typeface ½ inch

Module 8. Type and Typography

cueing and typography
Cueing and Typography

Change type to signal a change in the text to the reader:

  • colors
  • ALL CAPS
  • bold or italic or underlining
  • Size
  • K e r n i n g
  • Leading

Module 8. Type and Typography

resources and activities
Resources and Activities

Resources:

  • Fonts for Teachers http://www.fonts4teachers.com/

Assignments:

  • Communicating with Typography
  • Using guidelines provided, create a document that illustrates the variety of possibilities for using typography, layout, design, and other features of Microsoft Word.

Module 8. Type and Typography