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Human Body Terminology. Bio 099 Lab Martini Chapter 1. Anatomy & Physiology. Structure (anatomy) determines function (physiology). "Proportions of the Human Figure" Leonardo da Vinci, 1485-1490. Gross Anatomy (visible to the unaided eye). surface anatomy.

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human body terminology

Human Body Terminology

Bio 099

Lab

Martini Chapter 1

anatomy physiology
Anatomy & Physiology
  • Structure (anatomy) determines function (physiology)

"Proportions of the Human Figure" Leonardo da Vinci, 1485-1490

gross anatomy visible to the unaided eye1
Gross Anatomy(visible to the unaided eye)
  • surface anatomy
  • regional anatomy
gross anatomy visible to the unaided eye2
Gross Anatomy(visible to the unaided eye)
  • surface anatomy
  • regional anatomy
  • systemic anatomy
    • organ systems
gross anatomy visible to the unaided eye3
Gross Anatomy(visible to the unaided eye)
  • surface anatomy
  • regional anatomy
  • systemic anatomy
    • organ systems
  • developmental anatomy
    • embryology
gross anatomy visible to the unaided eye4
Gross Anatomy(visible to the unaided eye)
  • surface anatomy
  • regional anatomy
  • systemic anatomy
    • organ systems
  • developmental anatomy
    • embryology
  • clinical anatomy
    • for example radiology
microscopic anatomy cannot be seen without magnification
Microscopic Anatomy(cannot be seen without magnification)
  • cytology
    • looking at individual cells
  • histology
    • looking at groups of specialized cells called tissues
      • tissues combine to form organs
physiology
Physiology
  • The function of the anatomical structure
    • Cell physiology
    • Special physiology (i.e., cardiac)
    • Systemic physiology (i.e., cardiovascular)
    • Pathological physiology (Pathos = disease)
frames of anatomical reference
Frames of Anatomical Reference
  • Anatomy uses a special language to describe body sections, regions and relative positions.
  • You should be familiar with the body terminology in Chapter 1 (pgs 15-22).
anatomical position
Anatomical Position
  • hands at side, palms facing forward
    • STANDING FRONT = ANTERIOR
    • STANDING BACK = POSTERIOR
    • LYING FACE UP = SUPINE
    • LYING FACE DOWN = PRONE
superficial anatomy
Superficial Anatomy
  • Anatomical Landmarks
    • Anterior (front) View
    • Figure 1-6
superficial anatomy1
Superficial Anatomy
  • Anatomical Landmarks
    • Posterior (back) View
    • Figure 1-6
anatomical regions
Anatomical Regions
  • Clinicians use:
    • abdominopelvic quadrants

Provides useful reference for description of pain/injury.

RLQ tenderness is a symptom of appendicitis

Figure 1-7a

anatomical regions1
Anatomical Regions
  • Anatomist use:
    • 9 abdominopelvic regions

Figure 1-7

sectional anatomy
Sectional Anatomy
  • 3 Sectional Planes
    • traverse
    • frontal
    • sagittal
  • Plane:
    • a 3-dimensional axis
  • Section:
    • a slice parallel to a plane

Figure 1-9

body cavities
Body Cavities
  • internal chambers that serve 2 functions
    • protect organs
    • permit change in size without distorting or disrupting surrounding tissues or adjacent organs
ventral body cavity coelom
Ventral Body Cavity (coelom)
  • Coelom:
    • divided by the diaphragm into the

1. thoracic cavity

2. abdominopelvic cavity

membranes isolate the organs
Membranes Isolate the Organs
  • Serous membranes:
    • parietal layer (next to wall of cavity)
    • visceral layer (next to organ)

Figure 1–10b

thoracic cavity
Thoracic Cavity
  • thoracic cavity
    • pleural cavity
      • divided by the mediastinum
      • organs: lungs
      • membranes: visceral and parietal pleura
    • pericardial cavity
      • organs: heart
      • membranes: visceral and parietal pericardium
mediastinum
Mediastinum
  • mediastinum divides thoracic cavity into 2 pleural cavities

Figure 1–10c

abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • abdominopelvic cavity
    • peritoneal cavity
      • membranes: visceral and parietal peritoneum
    • abdominal cavity

(superior peritoneal)

      • organs: liver, stomach, spleen, intestine
    • pelvic cavity

(inferior peritoneal)

      • organs: intestine, bladder, reproductive organs.