Beam Pumping Workshop Houston, Texas October 4 - 7, 2005. Trouble Shooting. Lynn Rowlan. A Successful Trouble Shooter. Must be a Wizard ........ ..... needs to look 10,000 feet down a 3 inch diameter black hole and “SEE” what is happening ......
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Beam Pumping Workshop Houston, Texas October 4 - 7, 2005 Trouble Shooting Lynn Rowlan
A Successful Trouble Shooter • Must be a Wizard ........ • ..... needs to look 10,000 feet down a 3 inch diameter black hole and “SEE” what is happening ...... ......... Use Data to Troubleshoot Problem
Common Techniques for Trouble Shooting • Has Well’s Production Changed? • Is the Pumping Unit Running? • Is there a noticeable Leak? • Is fluid going into the tank? • Has the Fluid Level Changed? • Can the Pump Pressure up the Tubing? • Does the Pressure Leak Off?
Physical Trouble Shooting Indicators • Pressure Gages • Hot Flow Lines • Hot Polished Rod Load • Sounds at the Well • Equipment Vibrations • Ground Shakes • Fluid on the Ground
Shock Loads Shake the Ground 6.5 Klb
Techniques Not Recommended for Trouble Shooting • Why aren’t we tagging? • Put on hand and Pump 24 hrs/day. • Increase SPM in Order to Maintain Production. • Increase SPM because there is a Fluid Level Above the Pump. • Pull the Well, because no Fluid in the Tank.
Don’t Tag or Run 24 hrs/Day Anchored 2669 Lb TAG
Analysis Can ID the Problem • Inflow Performance • Pump Performance • Mechanical Loading • Prime Mover • System Efficiency Analysis • Root Cause of Failure • Data Trends Over Time • Dynamometer • Rod Pump Controllers
What Should be Known in Order to Trouble Shoot a Well? • Recent and/or Representative Well Test • Pump Capacity (or, Pump Card) • Producing BHP & Static BHP • Artificial Lift System Description • Energy Efficiency • Wellbore description • Artificial Lift System Design • Fluid Properties • Past History
Time to Depth Relationship 1. The Depth from the gun to an anomaly in the casing annulus is directly proportional to the time, RTTT, for the acoustic pulse to travel from the gun down the casing gas to the anomaly and reflect back to the microphone at the surface. 2. Microphone housed in the gas gun detects the blast from the shot and reflected sound from collars, liners, perforations, liquid level, plus other obstructions in the annulus. 3. Pressures used to determine if Producing to a WellsMax Potential
Direction of Reflected Pulse Defines Anomaly Initial Acoustic Pulse – caused by explosion of compressed gas into the casing annulus, explosion into annulus forms compression traveling wave. Reflected Pulse – caused by DECREASE in the annular cross-sectional area IS displayed as an downward kick on the acoustic trace. Reflected Pulse – caused by INCREASE in the annular cross-sectional area IS displayed as an upward kick on the acoustic trace.
Use Acoustic Surveys Alert You to Trouble Downhole End of Tubing @ 4750’ Tight Spot in Tubing @ 5050’ 1/8” Hole in Tubing Tight Spot 1/8” Hole Liquid Level
Match Known Depth of Downhole Anomalies to Reflections on Trace Perfs: 1369.–1371. 1530.5-33.5 1807.5-09.5 Perfs Liquid Level Casing Wt Change from 26# to 38# at 5913' ID change from 6.276” to 5.92” Liquid Level Wt Change
Analyze w/ Surface & Pump Cards • Surface Dynamometer cards for designing and diagnosing surface problems. • Rod String • Pumping Unit • Pump Problems • Excessive Friction • Pump card for analysis of downhole problems. • Unanchored Tubing • Tubing Leak • Pump Problems • Excessive Friction Surface Card Pump Card
A) Start of the upstroke, the traveling valve and standing valve are both closed. Understand Steps Pump Operation B) Standing Valve opens, when rods stretch to pick up fluid load, Fo, from tubing. B-C) Fluid load, Fo, is carried by the rods as well fluids are drawn into the pump. C) Standing valve closes, and the traveling valve remains closed. C-D pressure inside the pump increases until it is slightly greater than the pump discharge pressure. B C A D D - A, the fluid in the pump is displaced through the traveling valve into the tubing and ZERO fluid load is on rods. D) Pump discharge pressure (Pd) equals the static tubing pressure (Pt), and the traveling valve opens. Fluid load, Fo, is carried by tubing.
Missing Pump No Fo Rods
Pump OK - Tubing Leak, No Fluid to Surface Tubing anchored Fo Well Fo Rods
Fluid Level: Split Tubing Joint 4052’ PIP Fluid Level = 140 psi
SV Check Wrf SV Load
Damaged TV Ball and Seat Overlay of many Dynamometer Cards shows each stroke is different. Worn pump plunger/barrel cards usually overlay. Stroke 4
In time of One Stroke (10 Seconds) Trash Sticks Traveling Valve Open. Looks like a deep Rod Part. Stroke 13 Stroke 11
From A to B Rods Stretch to Pickup Load Kr: Change in Load Proportional to Change in Position Illustrate Spring Constant - Kr: Stuck Pump Results in Polished Rod Load Proportional to Change in Polished Rod Position PR(load) = Kr x PR(position) B A Stuck Pump w/ Anchored Tubing Kr = 190 Lbs/in SKr = 12160 Lbs
Identify and Troubleshoot Rod String Problems Identify and Troubleshoot Pump Problems Identify and Troubleshoot Tubing Problems Eliminate Shock Loading to Lowers Equipment Operating Costs To Trouble Shoot a Well