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SWIRE Science: Investigating the Active and Passive Universe on Large Scales. Alberto Franceschini Padova University. "SWIRE Science Team Meeting". IPAC, December 17-19, 2001.

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Swire science investigating the active and passive universe on large scales

SWIRE Science:Investigating the Active and Passive Universe on Large Scales

Alberto Franceschini

Padova University

"SWIRE Science Team Meeting"

IPAC, December 17-19, 2001


The SWIRE view on the Active Universe:AGN Contribution to the Infrared and X-ray Backgrounds[weighing the stellar vs. gravitational energy budget]


Summary
Summary

  • The CIRB, recent results, comparison with XRB

  • Ultimate energy sources for the BKGs: stellar emission and gravitational energy

  • Physical properties of the CIRB sources: AGN vs. SB

  • The X-ray diagnostics: deep IR/X-ray surveys

  • Testing the origin of the XRB

  • Prospects for SWIRE



COBE

Discovery of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIRB)

(Puget et al. 1996;

Hauser et al. 1998)

λ=100 μ


COBE

HST

(IR)=40 nW/msr

(opt)=17 nW/msr

The Infrared and Optical Background Radiations


ULTIMATE ENERGY SOURCES

XRB => mostly gravitational

CIRB => mostly stellar?

A solid limit: mass in local Massive Dark Objects (MDO's):

MMDO ~ 2 10-3 M* (M* : mass in spheroids

Kormendy & Richstone)

How much energy out of this?

ηstellar~10-3 , εAGN~0.5 (limit)

LAGN ~ 2 10-3 ε/η Lstar ~ Lstar

However: ηstellar~ (1-5) 10-3 , εAGN~ (0.1-0.5) , MMDO ~ (2-5) 10-3 M*

(Magorrian et al.)


A) 99% of the gravitational energy might be undetectable in X-rays because absorbed and re-radiated in the IR

~50% or more of the CIRB might be due to AGNs

Relevant for the history of stellar formation (SF)

  • B) XRBpeak at 30 keV Compton-thick emission, implies that the 1-10 keV range covered by CHANDRA & XMM might not be appropriate at all to sample accretion processes

  • Long-λ background critical for rather fundamental issues of cosmology:

  • history of barion transformations in stars

  • AGN unification, obscured quasar populations


Similarities of the CIRB/OPT. spectral shape and the typical StarBurst spectrum

M82

broad-band

spectrum

Log L()

(erg/s)

Log() []


6.9x6.4 arcmin StarBurst spectrum

19 sources above 3.5 mJy

SCUBA 850  survey of the

CFRS 1415h field

(Eales et al. 2000)


LW3 StarBurst spectrum

z=0

Typical source

spectra

0.5

1

1.5

2

LW3 15

LW2 6.7 

K-corrections


(Fadda et al. 2000) StarBurst spectrum


15 StarBurst spectrum differential counts (Euclidean normalized) by Elbaz et al. (1999)

Contribution of faint ISO sources to the diffuse mid-IR background light


HDF-North image StarBurst spectrum

overlayed by the

ISOCAM LW3

15  contours by

Aussel et al. 1999

2 arcmin


2.7 arcmin StarBurst spectrum

ISOCAM 15 μ image overlayed to the FORS2/VLT R-band image on the FIRBACK UDS field


IR-starbursts StarBurst spectrum

UV-optical galaxies

Optical &

X-ray AGNs

Evolution of the comoving luminosity density

(Franceschini et al. 2001)


Correlations of the MIR and FIR fluxes StarBurst spectrum

=> the global IR spectrum (Elbaz et al. 2001)


Bolometric luminosities of the faint ISO sources StarBurst spectrum

=> only 30% are ULIRGs (Lbol>1012 Lo)


The faint sources detected by ISO at 15 StarBurst spectrum are responsible for the bulk of the CIRB background


ISO : tentative way to resolve the CIRB StarBurst spectrum

  • Appropriate z (z ~ 1)

  • Easyly identified sources

  • Good sampling of the part of the LF making the

  • CIRB

  • Large samples available

  • Well-known z-distributions


First characterization of the CIRB sources StarBurst spectrum

LOW-RESOLUTION ISAAC OBSERVATIONS OF Ha+NII

(Rigopoulou et al. 2000)


  • To summarize: StarBurst spectrum

  • 18 galaxies observed with

  • H=19-22.5

  • H detected in 15 (low-res)

  • SFR(H) = 10 M/yr

  • SFR(FIR) = 100 M/yr


HST I-band image StarBurst spectrum

HDF- South source 27

M=3 1012 Mo (Ho = 60 Km/s)

d=36 kpc



CHANDRA SCUBA CHANDRA SCUBA emission

X-ray vs. mm vs. optical

(maps of A1835 and A2390)

X-ray: CHANDRA

optical: I-band

mm: SCUBA 850 

scale: 10 arcsec

(Fabian et al. 2000)



Modelling the ir seds of agns

Modelling the IR SEDs two of AGNs

Radiative transfer modelling


IR spectra of a typical AGN (NGC 1068) with those of typical starbursts (M82, Arp220, Arp 244) and a mixed AGN/SB (NGC 6240)

Elbaz et al. (2002)


NGC 1068 starbursts (M82, Arp220, Arp 244) and a mixed AGN/SB (NGC 6240)

[Floch et al. 2001]

[ISO CVF]



IR SEDs of Active Galactic Nuclei Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared

Models based on radiative transfer

solutions

Granato, Danese, Franceschini

(1997)


M82 IR spectrum fitted by AGN model Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared


Image at 15 μ by ISO of the Lockman Hole Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared(Fadda et al. (2001)

Large square: shallow survey (0.7x0.7 deg.), small square: deep survey (20x20 arcmin)

Inset: overlay of ISO and XMM (circle) on an I image



CHANDRA observation of the Hubble Deep Field North Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared

Brandt et al. (2001)

(see Mushotzky et al. 2000, Hornschemeier et al. 2000)

S0.5-2>5 10-17

(erg/cm2/s)


ISO & CHANDRA sources in the HDFN Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared (Fadda et al. 2001)


Cross-correlation between ISO and CHANDRA in the HDFN Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared


A joint iso xmm deep investigation in the lockman hole

A JOINT ISO/XMM Deep Investigation in the Lockman Hole Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared


XMM image by Hasinger et al. (2001) Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared

ISO image by Fadda et al. (2001)


IR and X-ray dapths in the Lockman and HDFN Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared


STATISTICS ON ISO/XMM SOURCES IN THE LOCKMAN HOLE Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared


X-ray vs. IR flux diagnostics Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared


High X-ray luminosities =>>> they are type-II QSO Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared



AGN contribution to the CIRB: Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared

the ISO guess (<20%)


Contribution of ISO galaxies to the CIRB Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared

C

CIRB140 = 25(+/-7) W/m2/sr at λ= 140 μ

IGL15: contribution to CIRB in W/m2/sr at λ= 15 μ

IGL140: contribution to CIRB in W/m2/sr at λ=140 μ

R: ratio of νSν at 140 and 15 μ


New agn statistics based on the mid ir selection
New AGN statistics based on the mid-IR selection Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared

  • Assuming that unclassified X-ray sources are type-2 (supported by these data):

    • 7 AGN type-1

    • 12 AGN type-2


ISO & XMM sources in common in the Lockman Hole area: Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared

type-II QSO originating the XRB

Franceschini et al. (2001)


X-ray luminosity vs. optical color Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared

X-ray hardness ratio vs. optical color


Hardness-ratio HR=[H-S]/H+S] Galactic Nuclei in the Mid-Infrared

HR3: H=4.5-10, S=2-4.5 keV HR2: H=2-4.5, S= 0.5-2 keV


Tests of the XRB synthesis model: a) bolometric luminosities

of type-I vs. type-II objs.

b) fractions of type-I vs. type-II


X-ray emissivity properties of faint ISO sources luminosities

=> 10% of sources show "AGN-type" X-ray activity


ISO sources luminosities

IR-selected AGNs

Where do the IR-selected AGNs contribute to the XRB? (cnt.)


The SIRTF "SWIRE" Survey luminosities

SIRTF Wide-area IR Extragalactic Survey, Legacy Programme

(C. Lonsdale and 18 co-investigators)

~ 70 square degree using all SIRTF photometric bands


Starbursts luminosities

AGN

A new AGN/Starburst diagnostic tool:

the ISO LW3(15μ)/LW2(6.7μ) flux ratio


  • Target RA Dec  100μ BKG E(B-V) Area(sq.deg.)

  • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • XMM-LSS 02 26 -04 30 -18 1.1 0.35 10

  • Chandra-S 03 45 -30 -48 < 0.4 0.12 5

  • Lockman Hole 10 40 57 +44 < 0.4 0.10 15

  • Lonsdale Hole 15 10 56 +68 < 0.4 0.20 10

  • ELAIS S1 00 35 -43 28 -43 < 0.4 0.12 15

  • ELAIS N1 16 09 56 27 +74 < 0.4 0.10 10

  • ELAIS N2 16 37 41 16 +62 < 0.4 0.11 5

  • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


  • Conclusions
    CONCLUSIONS luminosities

    • The CIRB background contains essential information not only on the history of SF, but also on the hystory of gas accretion, including obscured QSOphases

    • Most of the XRB and CIRB now resolved into sources => combined X/IR info

    • No clear-cut diagnostics for AGN/SB discrimination, two phenomena intimately connected and concomitant

    • Only combined multi-λ approach may give answer with some confidence

    • Preliminarly: XRB : gravitational energy

      CIRB : mostly stellar energy

    • SWIRE: essential contribution to the investigation of hidden phases of gravitational accretion, by exploiting the large survey area, which is essential to detect substantial samples of type-II AGNs [NB: our ISO/XMM survey in Lockman detected only 14 type-II's over 220 sq.arcmin]


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