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APUSH Labor Union Review. Labor Union Organizations. Shoemakers in PA (1790’s) Mechanics Union (1820’s) Molly Maguire's in PA (1860’s) Freemasons (1700’s). Knights of Labor (1869). Org. 9 tailors in PA Secret society Uriah S. Stephens Gained influence during Great RR Strike 1877

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labor union organizations
Labor Union Organizations
  • Shoemakers in PA (1790’s)
  • Mechanics Union (1820’s)
  • Molly Maguire's in PA (1860’s)
  • Freemasons (1700’s)
knights of labor 1869
Knights of Labor (1869)
  • Org. 9 tailors in PA
  • Secret society
  • Uriah S. Stephens
  • Gained influence during Great RR Strike 1877
  • 1880’s dropped secrecy & became public
  • Terrence Powderly—new leader of KOL
  • Included everyone w/ a job—except bankers, lawyers, gamblers & liquor producers
aims of the kol
Aims of the KOL
  • An eight-hour work day
  • Termination of child labor
  • Termination of the convict contract labor system (the concern was not for the prisoners; the Knights opposed competition from this cheap source of labor)
  • Establishment of cooperatives to replace the traditional wage system and help tame capitalism's excesses
  • Equal pay for equal work
  • Government ownership of telegraph facilities and the railroads
  • A public land policy designed to aid settlers and not speculators
  • A graduated income tax.
influence of kol
Influence of KOL
  • Main strategy—strikes
  • Successful in Union Pacific strike (1884) & Wabash RR Strike (1885)
  • Membership rose to over 700,000 in 1880’s
  • Haymarket Square Riot (1886)
  • KOL implicated
  • “union” = “anarchism”
  • Membership declines to 100,000
  • Too large, too many differing ideologies (some radical)
american federation of labor afl 1886
American Federation of Labor (AFL) 1886
  • Rise of AFL
  • Led by Samuel Gompers
  • Rejected Radical Unionization
  • Promoted union for skilled laborers
  • Used collective bargaining & strikes as last resorts
  • Wanted much of the same as KOL
    • Focused on higher wages, better workplace environ, & shortened work week
    • Left out minorities and unskilled laborers
minorities labor unions
Minorities & Labor Unions
  • African Americans
    • Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
  • Women
    • Women’s Trade Union League
    • International Ladies Garment Workers Union (after Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire-1911)
success of afl
Success of AFL
  • AFL becomes the largest and most powerful union in late 1800’s early 1900’s
  • Combating the ideology of “union” = “anarchism”
  • Most strikes are unsuccessful—put down by police, state or national guard
radical labor organizations
Radical Labor Organizations
  • Wobblies—International Workers of the World
    • Big Bill Haywood
  • Socialists
slide10
WWI
  • Labor Unions benefit from WWI
  • Fed. Gov’t regulates unions—promise to keep union demands—pay, hours, workplace conditions, end of child labor in return for not striking
  • Women & AA also receive benefits
  • End of WWI—return to labor problems
roaring 20 s
Roaring 20’s
  • Labor unions are hurt due to assembly line (unskilled laborers)
  • Open shops—refused to give work to members of a union
  • “welfare capitalism”—internal workplace unions
  • Booming economy
  • “Bull” market
  • Rampant immigration
great depression unions
Great Depression & Unions
  • FDR favors Unions
  • New Deal Legislation
    • NIRA “blanket code”=unconstitutional—”sick chicken”
    • NRA—creation of National Labor Board—employers must negotiate with legitimate unions
    • CIO (Committee of Industrial Organization)
      • Makes unions industry specific
      • United Auto Workers
      • SWOC