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Announcements: Homework 9: only one third (!) turned it in. EXTENDED to next Tuesday

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##### Announcements: Homework 9: only one third (!) turned it in. EXTENDED to next Tuesday

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**Announcements:**Homework 9: only one third (!) turned it in. EXTENDED to next Tuesday Note: to find frequencies of tones needed in to answer the asignment, either look it up on p. 153 of Backus, or calculate relative to the nearest A (440, 220 Hz etc) using the tempered semitone ratio (1.05946) Paper outline due Third exam is canceled (but will provide exam if anybody requests it) Recitals: Beatriz (trombone) Friday 7:30 St. Frances House Helen (viola) Saturday 2:30 St Frances House Gayle (piano) winner Beethoven Piano Competition D-minor Sonata Op. 31 #2 3:30 Sun Morphy Greg, Daniel (Tuba): Tuba and Euphonium Ensemble 2 pm Sat. Mills Concert Band 2 pm Sunday Mills Friday 7:30 Music Hall acapella concert Elise (Bassoon) Saturday May 4 at 1 pm St. Frances House Andrea? Others?**Physics 371 April 25, 2002**Acoustics for Musicians • Reed Instrum. (summary) • difference cylindrical/conical • what partials in tone? • importance of cutoff frequency • Bowed String Instruments • construction • rocking motion • plate resonances • “breathing” mode**oboe, bassoon, clarinet**who can bring bassoon?**lowest total bell**note length diam Clarinet: D3 67 cm 6 cm Soprano Sax: A3b69 cm 6 cm Oboe: D3 64 cm 4 cm profiles of reed instruments (vert scale enlarged 3-times)**Difference between cylindrical bore and conical bore (same**L) 1. cylindrical bore (Clarinet) lower by nearly an octave than conical bore (Oboe) of same length 2. Clarinet overblows to the twelvth, Oboe to the octave thus Clarinet needs 7 more tone holes**If Clarinet is a cylindrical closed pipe, simple theory**says there should be only odd partials...... • explanation: • clarinet differs from simple closed pipe: • has tone holes • has tapered mouth piece • has bell • higher modes are shifted • and broad - see next slide.... for all instruments the spectrum changes as we ascend the scale (high tones - fewer partials)**The dots mark all multiples ofthe fundamental**frequency even if higher modes are shifted, the partials are still exact multiples since excitation is periodic Clarinet resonance curve (all tone holes closed) 3 8 6 5 2 4 7 frequency (Hz)**Timbre depends on profile of instrument.**• example: • Oboe and Sax are both conical • reed instruments but • Sax has : (see picture next slide) • large opening angle, large bell • -> lower freq cutoff • large tone holes of Sax • loud! strong low partials • Oboe has: • small opening angle, small bell • -> high freq cutoff • small tone holes • soft, B3b A3b Soprano Sax**Saxophone**instrument designed (rather than evolution)**see papers by Carleen Hutchins**is there a detectable difference between Strads and other violins?**Strads**other old Italian masters Tuning of the lowest resonances of different violins