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A. chloroplast B. photosynthesis C. cellular respiration D. glucose E. fermentation

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A. chloroplast B. photosynthesis C. cellular respiration D. glucose E. fermentation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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A. chloroplast B. photosynthesis C. cellular respiration D. glucose E. fermentation F. chemical energy G. mitochondria \_\_\_\_ 1. To stay alive, a cell must be able to release the \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ that is stored in a molecule's bonds.

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slide1
A. chloroplast

B. photosynthesis

C. cellular respiration

D. glucose

E. fermentation

F. chemical energy

G. mitochondria

____ 1. To stay alive, a cell must be able to release the ____________ that is stored in a molecule's bonds.

____ 2. ____________ is the process by which plants produce glucose and oxygen.

____ 3. A major energy source for most cells is a sugar molecule called ____________.

____ 4. Cells use oxygen to release the energy in glucose during ____________.

____ 5. Cellular respiration takes place in a cell's ____________.

____ 6. If a muscle cell does not have enough oxygen, it can still release energy through the process of

____________.

slide2
A. chloroplast

B. photosynthesis

C. cellular respiration

D. glucose

E. fermentation

F. chemical energy

G. mitochondria

____ 1. To stay alive, a cell must be able to release the ____________ that is stored in a molecule's bonds.

____ 2. ____________ is the process by which plants produce glucose and oxygen.

____ 3. A major energy source for most cells is a sugar molecule called ____________.

____ 4. Cells use oxygen to release the energy in glucose during ____________.

____ 5. Cellular respiration takes place in a cell's ____________.

____ 6. If a muscle cell does not have enough oxygen, it can still release energy through the process of

____________.

1. F. chemical energy

2. B. photosynthesis

3. D. glucose

4. C. cellular respiration

5. G. mitochondria

6. E. fermentation

chapter 2 how cells function
2.1: Chemical reactions take place inside cells

2.2: Cells capture and release energy

2.3: Materials move across the cell’s membranes

Chapter 2: How Cells Function

Will learn:

-why cells need energy

-How energy is captured and stored

-How plants and animals get energy

Have already learned:

-the cell is the basic unit of all living things

-Plant cells and animal cells have -similarities and differences

all cells need energy
All cells need energy
  • Animal cells, plant cells, bacteria cells, unicellular organisms: ALL need energy
    • Animals get it from food
    • Plants get it from the sun
  • Type of energy = chemical energy!
    • Cells must release the chemical energy stored in bonds (between atoms) in order to stay alive
  • Cells release chemical energy from glucose (sugar molecule)
all cells need energy1
All cells need energy
  • Muscle cells 
    • release chemical energy from glucose to move legs 
      • More running, more glucose needed
  • Energy from?
    • food!
  • For plants:
    • Sunlight + water + CO2 glucose + O2
some cells capture light energy
Some cells capture light energy
  • Source of ALL energy?
    • Ultimately…the SUN!
  • Photosynthesis – process that plants cells use:
    • Energy from sunlight into chemical energy
    • Takes place in plant cells that have chloroplasts
      • Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll
      • Chlorophyll absorbs light
    • Starting materials:

carbon dioxide (air) + water (soil)

    • The process:

Materials enter chloroplasts

+ energy (sunlight)

    • The products:

 Glucose and Oxygen!

Some glucose is linked together

to build large carbohydrates:

      • stored as starch
all cells release energy
All cells release energy
  • Glucose and other sugars are “cell food”
    • Glucose is stored as glycogen or starch
      • Must be broken down to use as energy
      • Break the bonds of sugar – release energy!
  • Two ways:
    • Respiration
      • Requires oxygen
      • Release more usable energy than fermentation
    • Fermentation
      • Does not require oxygen
cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration
  • Think: reverse of photosynthesis…occurs in mitochondria (chloroplasts)
  • Starting materials: oxygen and sugar
    • USE oxygen to RELEASE energy stored in sugars, such as glucose
      • Gain oxygen and sugars
  • The process:
    • Glucose in cytoplasm is broken down into smaller molecules, releasing some energy
    • Molecules move to mitochondria and oxygen enters cell (and moves to mitochondria)
    • The smaller molecules are further broken down
      • Hydrogen released (combines with oxygen to make water)
  • The products
    • Energy, carbon dioxide, water (starting products of …)
  • Some of this energy is transferred to other molecules, so is released as heat
fermentation
Fermentation
  • Cells releasing energy withOUT oxygen
  • When cells first break glucose into smaller molecules, a small amount of energy is released
    • With oxygen…cellular respiration would continue in the mitochondria
    • Without oxygen…fermentation continues in the cytoplasm
  • Two types: Alcoholic and Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • Both start with small molecules made from sugars
    • Next reactions occur producing either alcohol and carbon dioxide OR lactic acid
    • In both, a small amount of energy is then released
fermentation1
Fermentation
  • Examples:
    • Bread: mix flour, milk, and sugar, with a microorganism yeast
      • Without oxygen, yeast converts the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide (CO2) – bubbles of CO2 gas form in the dough causing it to rise…alcohol evaporates, the yeast is killed, and CO2 makes the bread spongy
    • Yogurt, cheese, sourdough bread
      • Lactic acid bacteria convert the sugars found in milk
        • Sourdough bread: acidity changes  sour flavor
        • Yogurt and cheese: milk partially solidifies: creamy texture of yogurt…if fermentation continues  cheese
energy and exercise
Energy and exercise
  • Some cells (and organisms) can release energy using either cellular respiration or fermentation
    • At rest, muscle cells store both energy and oxygen
    • During exercise all the energy and oxygen may be used up
      • Fermentation is then used to break down the sugars
        • Less energy than with cellular respiration
        • Waste product: lactic acid = burns!
      • Breath hard to replace used oxygen
      • Muscles stop hurting and build back up oxygen and energy levels
slide17
http://www.cambridgestudents.org.uk/subjectpages/biology/igcsebiology/igcsebiologysimulations
  • Grow a plant
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