-Extending man’s knowledge of Earth, the solar system and the universe…. WORLD SPACE PROGRAMS. Introduction. The reasoning for establishing the U.S. Space Program in 1958 hold true for the world today:. What are the principal reasons for undertaking a national space program?
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the solar system and the universe….
The reasoning for establishing the U.S. Space
Program in 1958 hold true for the world today:
for undertaking a national space program?
Launch of Mercury-Atlas 7 Mission….NASA – First U.S. manned space program
These factors give importance, urgency
and inevitability to the advancement of
to explore and to discover
“But if we have learned one lesson, it is that research and exploration have a remarkable way of paying off – quite aside from the fact that they demonstrate that man is alive and insatiably curious. And we all feel richer for knowing what explorers and scientists have learned about the universe in which we live…”
1903: Russian Mathematician, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published the first serious work on space travel: “The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices.”
1920: Robert Goddard, an American Scientist, published “A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes.” This was the first serious work on using rockets for space travel after Tsiolkovsky’s effort.
While the observation of objects in space (known as astronomy) pre-dates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large liquid-fueled rocket engines during the early 20th century that allowed space exploration to become a practical possibility.
A group of 500 German scientists, Verein fur Raumshiffarht (VfR), started to experiment with testing rockets in 1930. If rockets were launched fast enough, they would go up into space (per Newton). This changed the nature of warfare and propelled the world into the space age.
1926: Robert Goddard and the first liquid-fueled rocket, in Auburn, MA.
Towards the end of World War II, the US intelligence & military services extracted 104 scientists from Nazi Germany. They worked at White Sands Proving Grounds (NM) on test launches and at Ft. Bliss, TX for research. The Nazi V-2 rocket developed into the American Redstone rocket, used in the early space program.
German rocket scientists from Operation Paperclip…1946
Many countries of the world have individual government -sponsored space programs… as well as there are group efforts that combine multi-national expertise…
Multi-national North KoreaNorwayPakistanPhilippinesPortugal
cross the Karman line. (Sub-orbital)
spaceflight – Army/General Electric. (Sub-orbital)
orbital satellite – started space race with US & was first comsat (communications satellite)
organism (dog) launched into space
reach the Moon – discovery of solar winds
(Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin) –April 12, 1961
(Astronaut Alan Shepard)-May 5, 1961
(single panoramic camera) by U.S. Air Force
speed data & telephone signals –AT&T, USA
Astronauts: Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins & Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene ‘Buzz’ Aldrin, Jr.
Apollo 11 landing on Moon
space crew -401,056 km.
–US Air Force
(for micrometeorite detection)
Pioneer 10 Flyby Deep Space
Photo of Venus land from Venera 13
Saturn photo, by Voyager 2
Near Earth Asteroid Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft.
Russia and the US –Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev
Huygens surface color on Titan…
submarine –TUB (German)
Artist’s sketch of Spitzer spacecraft…
Spitzer image of new cloud formation in Serpens South
–Marcos Pontes (Russian launch)
cosmic dust to Earth -NASA
Surface of Jupiter –New Horizons probe
Artist’s conception of Stardust spacecraft
Artist’s sketch of Mars Opportunity Rover
scientific launch. -IARI
satellite. (Russian launch)
Chinese orbital launch -CNSA
MARS launch site in VA….
Dr. Sheikh MuszapharShukor
(used American technology)
cosmonaut in space -Sergey Volkov (Russian)
space -Yi So-yeon이소연 (Russian launch)
Astronaut Yi So-yeon…
Artist’s sketch of Deep Impact…
Although there are many countries involved in space exploration, only the following ones have launch sites:
Brazil (1), China (3), European Space Agency (ESA-1), India (1),
Israel (1), Italy (1), Japan (2), Russia (4) and the US (3).
Space Shuttle launch as seen from the ISS…
competitive in the market for space goods and services.
Launch at Centro de Lançamento da Barreira do Inferno - CLBI
INPE: InstitutoNacional de PesquisasEspaciais (INPE)
it the largest CBERS world distributor
Since it’s birth in 1956, China's space industry was developed on the basis of weak infrastructure industries and a relatively backward scientific & technological level, under special national and historical conditions. In the process of carrying out space activities independently, China has opened a road of development unique to its national situation and scored a series of important achievements with relatively small input and within a relatively short span of time. Now, China ranks among the most advanced countries in the world in many important technological fields: satellite recovery, multi-satellite launch with a single rocket, rockets with cryogenic fuel, strap-on rockets, launch of geo-stationary satellites and TT&C.
Significant achievements have also been gained in the development and application of remote-sensing satellites and telecommunications satellites, and in manned spacecraft testing and space micro-gravity experiments.
CNSA: China National Space Administration
The CNSA policy white paper lists short term goals as:
Among their stated longer term goals are:
-Dong Fang Hong I
Asian and European interests
Chinese-born man (US citizen) in space
Taylor Gun-Jin Wang
GOALS & AIMS
The European Space Agency (ESA) is Europe’s gateway to space. Its mission is to shape the development of Europe’s space capability and ensure that investment in space continues to deliver benefits to the citizens of Europe and the world.
Shot of Europe from space … ESA
Europe formed two organizations to establish a European Space
Program: European Launch Development Organization (ELDO)
and European Space Research Organization (ESRO).
Founding members: Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy,
the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain.
(11 European nations)
Ariane-5 ECA Flight 164 launch… 2005
& map gamma ray emissions across the universe.
Ulf Merbold, German
GOALS & AIMS
Its task is to invent the space systems of the future, bring space
technologies to maturity and guarantee France’s independent
access to space.
CNES is helping to foster new technologies that will benefit
society as a whole, focusing on:
CNES: Centre National d’EtudesSpatiales
GOALS & AIMS
Launch pad at Sriharikota
ISRO: Indian Space Research Organization
VISION & MAIN GOALS
ISA: Israeli Space Agency
TECSAR Hi Res Imaging
San Marco platform, near Kenya
The Italian Space Agency came into being in 1988. Its purpose was to coordinate all of Italy’s efforts and investments in the space sector that had begun in the 1960s.
Today, ASI has a key role at the European level where Italy is the third contributor country to the European Space Agency (ESA). It also is involved at the international level. For example, ASI has a close working relationship with NASA, which has led to its participation in many of the most interesting scientific missions (including Cassini-Huygens, ISS, etc.) of recent years.
S-520 … 2008
JAXA: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
of solar effects on the Earth –UK, Japan & US
Motto: “Reaching for the skies, exploring space…”
Launch site at Baikonur
planetology, space biology, physiology
& materials science
Russian cosmodrome sites…
RKA: Russian Federal Space Agency
launched and started “Space Race” with the U.S.
launched into space and survive weightlessness
Laika, the dog … -served as precursor to human missions
Site of German missile testing… 1943
study of Mars & its Moon, Phobos
First Human extra-vehicular spaceflight
– Gemini 4; Ed White - Astronaut
NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research.
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
President Eisenhower creates NASA
-John H. Glenn, Jr.
advocated enlisting help of universities for
lunar science studies
lunar landing , EVA exploration & safe return
efforts in space discovery between the U.S. and Soviets
Apollo 15 – David Scott … “The Hammer and the Feather.”
U of NH students locate over 1,000 yrs . old Mayan
ruins in Guatemala
to dig N section of Mars for
Sally Ride – Challenger 1983
CA Spotted Owls
Aster image of
Hayman fires in CO
IKONOS satellite false color view of deep rainforest Mayan ruin of Tikal…
HDTV broadcast – Times Square, NY
Phoenix photo on Mars surface
Hubble shot of cavernous star-forming region of NGC 3324, blasted out by intense stellar radiation. 10/2008
SWIFT shot of GRB 090813
MRO/HIRISE photo of possible
canyon/canal sites on MARS
NASA Celebrates 50 Years of Space Exploration & Discovery
Oct. 1, 2008: NASA celebrated its 50th Anniversary at the Smithsonian’s National Air & Space Museum Steven F. Udvar -Hazy Center
Expedition 17 Flight Engineer
Greg Chamitoff addresses the group
from the ISS…
In the next 20 years, NASA will be laying the groundwork for sending
humans not only beyond Earth's orbit, but further into to space than
they've ever been. The next key steps are:
technologies required to send people beyond
low Earth orbit by 2014
Terrestrial Planet Detection
FUTURE NASA PROJECTS
Mars panorama, Spirit shot
STRENGTHEN AMERICA’S LEADERSHIP IN SPACE SCIENCE
“It is essential to maintain U.S. leadership in space… In 2010,
the U.S. will face a five-year gap in the ability to send astronauts
to the International Space Station. The Obama Administration
will restore America’s leadership in space science:
• Establish a robust program for human and robotic exploration
that preserves our space workforce, engages international
allies and draws on expertise in the private sector.
• Close the gap in NASA access to lower earth orbit and better
utilize the International Space Station.
• Strengthen NASA’s missions in space science, weather, climate
research, and aeronautical research.
• Develop a new generation of space vehicles to replace the
Space Shuttle scheduled to retire in 2010.
• Improve NASA’s educational outreach and programs that
promote spin-off consumer technologies.”
As of May, 2008 , individuals from 39 countries have traveled in space – 24 have been beyond low Earth orbit….
BELGIUM - 2
BULGARIA – 2
CANADA – 8
FRANCE - 9
GERMANY – 10
ITALY - 5
JAPAN - 7
NETHERLANDS - 2
People’s Republic of
CHINA - 3
RUSSIA - 41
SOVIET UNION - 72
of America - 305
OTHERS - 27