Spelling Rules. QU Q always needs a U. C C says /s/ before E, I, or Y. (otherwise, C usually says /k/). cent, city, cycle. G G may say /j/ before E, I, or Y . (otherwise, G usually says /g/). germ, giant, gym. A, E, O, U A, E, O, U usually say /A, E, O, U/ at the end of a syllable.
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CC says /s/ before E, I, or Y.(otherwise, C usually says /k/) cent, city, cycle
GG may say /j/ before E, I, or Y.(otherwise, G usually says /g/) germ, giant, gym
A, E, O, UA, E, O, U usually say /A, E, O, U/ at the end of a syllable. la-zy, me, go, u-nit
I, YI and Y usually say /i/ at the end of a syllable (cli-nic) but MAY say /I/.
Silent Final E The preceding vowel sound changes because of the E.
The Supporter E English words do not end with V or U (the E holds them up!).
The Softening E The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because of the E.
The Sidekick E Every syllable must have a vowel (a silent E adds a vowel to a syllable).
The Odd Job E A silent final E that does any odd job not covered by another E rule.
IE or EIUse I before E (chief)…-except after C (receive)-if we say A (their)-and in some exceptions.
SH/Sh/ used at the beginning of a word (she)at the end of a syllable (fish),but NOT at the beginning of any syllable after the first one (na-tion),except for the ending –ship (friend-ship).
TI, CI, SILatin spellings of /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. na-tion, fa-cial, ten-sion
AbbreviationsAbbreviations use a few letters to represent a larger word. Mr. = Mister
1-1-1 RuleWhen a one syllable word ends in one vowel then one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix. get, get-ting
2-1-1 Accent RuleWhen a two syllable word ends in one vowel then one consonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable. forget, for-get-ting
Silent Final E WordsSilent Final E words commonly lose the need for the E when adding a VOWEL suffix. hope, hop-ing, hopeless
FF, LL, SSWe often double F, L, S after a single vowel at the end of a base word (off, all, con-fess). Occasionally, other letters are doubled in this way (ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, watt, jazz).
AYA-Y usually says /A/ at the end of a base word (may, pay, day). When a word ends with an A, it says /ah/ (ma, pa, soda).Exception: the word “a”
XSX is never directly before S. boxes, excel
ALL and FULL are written with one L when added to another syllable. almost, beautiful, fulfill
PluralsTo make a word plural, just add –S unless the word ending hisses (rich, bus, wish, box, buzz), changes (wife/wives, fly/flies) or may end with O (tomato/tomatoes). In these cases, add –ES.
DGE3 letter /j/ used only after a single vowel that says /a-e-i-o-u/. badge, edge, bridge, lodge, fudge
A Single Vowel YThe single vowel Y (not -oy, -ey, -ay) changes to I when adding ANY ending (try/tried, beauty/ beautiful, baby/babies) unless the ending begins with an I (trying/babyish)
CK2 letter /k/ used only after a single vowel that says /a-e-i-o-u/. back, peck, pick, pocket, truck
CapitalizationCAPITALIZE words that are the individual names or titles of persons, places, or things.
ZZ, never S, is used to say /z/ at the beginning of a base word. zoo, zip, zero
EDE-D, past-tense ending, forms another syllable if the base word ends with /d/ or /t/ (loaded, acted).If not, E-D sounds like either /d/ or /t/ (killed, picked).
ContractionsContractions replace a letter (or letters) with an apostrophe to contract (or shorten) a phrase. I am = I’m she will = she’ll
A /a/ - /A/ - /ah/
C /k/ - /s/
E /e/ - /E/
G /g/ - /j/
I /i/ - /I/
O /ah/ - /O/ - /OO/