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    1. What do your students know about food safety?

    2. FDA Trained Facilitators:Judy Conrad –West Liberty-Salem High Schooljconrad@wlstigers.orgKorisa McCoy - Poland Middle Schoolkmccoy@polandschools.orgKathy Shisler– Revere High Schoolkshisler@revereschools.orgKelley Smith – Tallmadge High

    3. Goals for this workshop:1. Participants will explore an inquiry-based approach to incorporate food science in the classroom2. Participants will become familiar with the S&OFS Teacher’s Guide 3. Participants will experience several labs/activities to better facilitate their use in the classroom4. Participants will learn about the FDA S&OFS training opportunity available to FCS teachers

    4. Every year, an estimated 48 million people fall sick from foodborne illness. Of these, 128,000 are hospitalized and 3,000 will die. Clearly, food safety for Americans has become an important national focus. More high school students are employed in restaurants than any other industry, yet they often begin their jobs with little information about food safety and ways they can prevent foodborne illness. Today’s teens can discover ways to prevent foodborne illness by learning about safe food handling habits they can practice throughout their lives. Through Science and Our Food Supply, you can engage your students in inquiry-based science that is relevant to their lives and the lives of those with whom they come in contact! The program introduces middle and high school students to the fundamentals of microbiology while at the same time imparting important public health information. Food Safety Education is Critical

    5. About Science and Our Food Supply (S&OFS) • This innovative supplementary curriculum for science teachers was created by the Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the National Science Teachers Association. • The teacher-friendly modular format covers food science from the farm to the table and includes challenging “hands-on, minds-on” activities that link food science and food safety to students' everyday lives. • S&OFS offers fun, creative ways for presenting the lessons, and includes real-life examples of “science at work.” Your students will be challenged to use proper investigative methods to work through the activities, with a special focus on laboratory safety throughout all modules. They’ll experience in-depth activities and experiments on engaging topics like DNA fingerprintingand outbreak analysis.

    6. Program components include: Teachers Guides for middle level and high school, packed with activities, lab investigations, online links and career connections in the field of food science and technology. Most activities include inquiry-based, reproducible lab sheets. Food Safety A to Z Reference Guide with frequently asked questions, fun facts, helpful tips, and more. Dr. X and the Quest for Food Safety, a 46-minute, Emmy-winning DVD that features a savvy food scientist who leads students on a journey through the food supply chain. Viewers experience behind-the-scenes research in laboratories and profiles of scientists in food safety careers. About Science and Our Food Supply (S&OFS)

    7. Uses an inquiry-based learning approach as set forth by the National Science Education Standards and involves students in hands-on activities based on good scientific methods and laboratory practices; an at-a-glance chart outlining the standards is included; Provides connections to Personal Health and Social Perspective Standards, often missing in other science curricula; Employs a flexible “module format” that integrates food safety from the farm to the table into the curriculum; Includes “career connections” to inspire young scientists through insider interviews with real-life scientists and a career guide; and Incorporates sciLINKS, an NSTA program that links supplemental resource material, including specific subjects in S&OFS, to rich Internet resources for educators. S&OFS easily fits into biology, life science, or other science classes. The program: Integrating the Program

    8. Integrating the Program The program correlates with Family and Consumer Sciences Content Standards STANDARD 6: Ensure Food Safety Introductory Benchmark A: Recognize importance of proper food and beverage handling techniques related to food-borne pathogens. Intermediate Benchmark A: Demonstrate safe food-handling practices related to food-borne pathogens. Intermediate Benchmark B: Use critical thinking and reasoning to engage available resources and ensure an adequate, secure food supply. Advanced Benchmark A: Apply proper food handling techniques to develop plans for self and others in public and private settings. Advanced Benchmark B: Develop critical thinking and reasoning to select available resources that ensure adequate, secure food supplies.

    9. “We Are the Microbes” A fun music selection about nutrition and food safety by Dr. Carl Winter from UC Davis”

    10. Module I: Understanding Bacteria • Students learn about bacterial growth and how pathogens pose a risk of causing illness • The Big Picture activity explains that food safety is everyone’s responsibility. • Bacteria Everywhere lab shows how ever-present bacteria can spread from one surface to the next, potentially contaminating things that come into contact with food. • The 12 Most Unwanted Bacteria activity introduces a research project for the most common bacteria that cause foodborne illness.

    11. Safety First in the LaboratoryPreparing for the Lab Experiment • Many of the procedures are very similar to what you may already expect of students during food labs. • It is important to remind students that they are performing scientific experiments and there are additional expectations and new procedures to follow. • Turn to pg. 8 & 9 to review

    12. Inoculating a Petri Dish • Label the Petri dish – divide into sections if applicable and label on the bottom outside portion of the dish • Inoculate using a sterile cotton swab - do not touch the end that you will use to inoculate • For a dry surface wet the swab by dipping in to sterile or boiled water • For a liquid just dip it into the liquid and inoculate using a back and forth motion • Tape the Petri Dish using parafilm or masking tape • Parafilm – stretch around the dish • Making tape – two small pieces on opposite sides • Incubate– place dishes upside down in an incubator set at 35°C (95°F)

    13. Understanding Bacteria • While the US has one of the safest food supplies in the world there is always room for improvements. • Food safety is all about controlling bacteria. • Bacteria are found everywhere and under the right conditions they can multiply fast • Under the right conditions (temperature and time) some bacteria can double their numbers in minutes - Keep temperatures below 40°F • Bacteria need nutrients – they grow rapidly in proteins • Bacteria thrive in a pH above 4.6 – acidic foods like vinegar and citrus foods are not favorable for bacteria • Bacteria thrive in moist environments – why they don’t grow in foods like cereals

    14. How the 4 Cs of Food Safety Control Bacteria • Cooking – kills bacteria by breaking down cell walls and destroying enzymes • Chilling – slows down the bacteria’s metabolism. • Cleaning – removes bacteria from hands and surfaces. • Combating Cross-Contamination (separating foods) prevents bacteria from spreading from one item to another.

    15. The Big Picture(Activity for Students) • This activity introduces students to food safety. It includes: • Information on the number of people affected each year by food illnesses • Farm-to-table continuum • The 4 C’s of food safety • The link between food safety and science

    16. Bacteria Everywhere(Suggested for two 45 minute class periods) • This activity challenges students to hypothesize where most bacteria are found: • Develop awareness that bacteria is everywhere • Learn to work safely with bacteria • Hypothesize how to control spread of bacteria • Prepares students for other experiments in food safety curriculum

    17. Bacteria EverywhereProcedure • Ask each team to choose 4 – 6 areas to examine. • Make certain at least two teams test important areas such as hands and under the fingernails. • Each team should hypothesize about which areas have most bacteria. • Each team designs an experiment to test their hypothesis. • Each team presents hypothesis and DOE to class. • Show students how to swab a surface and inoculate a Petri Dish.

    18. Bacteria EverywhereProcedures • Start experiment • Label Dishes on the bottom and divide into thirds • Use one dish as the control and the other two for areas to test • Make certain you label class and group on each sample • Gather samples and inoculate dishes. Tape dishes closed. • Put them in incubators or let them sit at room temperatures. • Students will observe bacterial growth and record results in the provided data table (usually done several days later) – done under magnification. • Analyze results based on their observations.

    19. Results comparing exit door from women’s rest room (left half of slide) to men’s rest room (right half of slide)

    20. Challenge your students to find the most bacteria in the school. It may not be where they think it will be!The slide below is from the underside of the water fountain drain!

    21. Twelve Most Unwanted BacteriaThis is what you would look for in your lab experiments Shigella Staphylococcus aureus Vibrio cholerae Vibrio vulnificus Yersinia enterocolitica • Campylobacter Jejuni • Clostridium botulinum • Clostridium perfringens • Escherichia coli 0157:H7 • Listeria monocytogenes • Salmonella Enteritidis • Salmonella Typhimurium

    22. Module 2: Farm • Students learn how practices on the farm, such as safe composting, can lead to safer crops. • Chain of Food activity explores the path food takes along the Farm-to-Table Continuum. The Five Farm-to-Table Steps

    23. Why do we need to know where our food originates?

    24. Meet Dr. X

    25. Students explore how food processing technologies, such as ultra-high temperature pasteurization, are leading to new products and ways to keep food safe up through the transportation phase. Blue’s the Clue lab introduces pasteurization and the effect temperature has on reducing and controlling the growth of bacteria. Mystery Juice lab uses investigation to demonstrate how pasteurization reduces the number of microorganisms in juice. Irradiation Web Quest activity uses online research to explain irradiation. Ultra High Pressure Treatment activity shows how foods are kept safe through processing, including the newest food preservation technologies. Module 3: Processing and Transportation

    26. Module 3: Processing and Transportation • A display of UHT milk at Whole Foods in Dublin, Ohio.

    27. Module 3: Processing and Transportation • On day 3, the growth of bacteria will be evident in your samples.

    28. Module 3: Processing and Transportation • Blue’s the Clue • After observing visual changes in each sample, record your observations in the data table.

    29. Module 3: Processing and Transportation • Mystery Juice

    30. Module 3: Processing and Transportation • Sample A on day 3.

    31. Module 3: Processing and Transportation • Sample B on day 3

    32. Module 3: Processing and TransportationPre-test Answers 1. What is irradiation? --The process in which ionizing energy (an intense pulse of energy from a gamma radiation source like Cobalt 60 or from an electrical source like an electron beam accelerator) penetrates food and destroys any bacteria. 2. What is pasteurization? How is milk pasteurized? --The process of using heat or irradiation to destroy microorganisms that could cause disease. Milk is forced between metal plates or through pipes heated on the outside by hot water, and is heated to 161 °F for 15 seconds.

    33. Module 3: Processing and TransportationPre-test Answers • 3. Can eggs be pasteurized? _Yes, commercially_ If so, what is the process? • --Eggs are heated slowly to 134 degrees F and the temperature is maintained for 1 hour and 15 minutes. • 4. What is UHT milk? • --Ultra-high temperature processing (UHT, also known as ultra-heat-treating) is a process in which milk is held at a temperature of 280 °F for a minimum of two seconds. This destroys more bacteria than traditional pasteurization. Look for UHT on the label.

    34. Module 3: Processing and TransportationPre-test Answers • 5. How does UHP treatment destroy bacteria without the use of high temperatures or chemical additives? • --Foods are subjected to 50,000 to 100,000 pounds of pressure per square inch (ultra high pressure) which is maintained for 30 seconds to a few minutes. The pressure interferes with the metabolism and structure of bacteria and destroys living cells without altering the basic composition of the food.

    35. Module 4: Retail and Home • Students learn how safe food handling practices in restaurants and at home can reduce foodborne illness. • Fast Food Footwork activity explores how retail food-service establishments ensure that food is safely stored, prepared, and served. • The Science of Cooking a Hamburgerlab explores the 4 Cs of Food Safety — clean, cook, chill, and combat cross- contamination — through a series of four labs. • Coliform Counts lab uses a coliform analysis of raw hamburger, and applies the results to food safety.

    36. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level Examines the preparation of food in the retail food-service establishments and in the home. • Supermarket Smarts explores all aspects of safe food handling in a supermarket. • The Science of Cooking a Hamburger: Cooking Rightshows the relationship between the temperature to which a hamburger is cooked and the presence of bacteria. • A Chilling Investigation investigates the effect of chilling and not chilling on the growth of bacteria. • Crossed Up! – examines how bacteria can be spread among items in a kitchen if they are not properly cleaned. • Hands Off, Bacteria! – analyzes handwashing and its connection to food safety.

    37. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • Supermarket Smarts Dr. X and the Quest for Food Safety • Students are assigned to be supermarket department managers and must research food safety requirements using the 4 Cs of Food Safety. Small groups present their findings to the class.

    38. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • Crossed Up! • Students bring in kitchen items from home and put in a Ziploc bag. • You will need to pour distilled water into the bag and massage the items with the bag. The water will appear dirty in some bags and clean in others. • Students can design their experiment. Make sure sterile swabs and plates are used. Have teams record their results on a data sheet and present their finding. • Cross-contamination! Be sure to follow the 4 Cs. • Relates back to Module 1 – Bacteria Everywhere.

    39. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • Hands-Off Bacteria • -Glo Germ or Cinnamon and Oil can be used to show the transferring of germs and/or the importance of washing hands the proper way. Let students conduct experiments and remind students of the science behind their discoveries. • Soap + scrubbing action + hot water = CLEAN HANDS • -20% of consumers don’t wash their hands before preparing food. • Dr. X Module 4 - Part 2

    40. Cross-Contamination and Allergies

    41. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • A Chilling Investigation • Lab lets students see the reason that food should not be defrosted on the counter or left out. • Hamburger is left overnight on the counter and is tested for bacterial growth. Hamburger from the refrigerator is also tested for bacterial growth. Students compare the results. • Students will remember why they should follow the 2 hour rule and defrost food properly. • This experiment can be done at the same time as The Science of Cooking a Hamburger: Cooking Right.

    42. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • A Chilling Investigation Refrigerator Room Temperature

    43. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • A Chilling Investigation Room Temperature Control Refrigerator

    44. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • The Science of Cooking a Hamburger: Cooking Right • This lab allows students to see the importance of cooking meat to a safe internal temperature and using a food thermometer. • Research done by the USDA show that 1 out of every 4 hamburgers turns brown in the middle before it is safely cooked. Some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135°F. • Less than half the population owns a food thermometer and only 3% use a thermometer when cooking foods like hamburger at home. • Hamburger should be cooked to 160°F. Thermometers should be inserted into the side of the burger so that the entire sensing area is positioned in the center of the burger. • Lab can be done as a teacher demonstration or you can let the students do the experiment. We will be doing this experiment today.

    45. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • The Science of Cooking a Hamburger: Cooking Right • Safety First! • -Do not eat or taste the hamburger used in the experiments. • -Wash your hands and disinfect any surface that came in contact with raw meat. • -Safety gloves, safety glasses, and lab aprons should be used. • -Beware of hot surfaces. Use hot pads when handling hot items. • -Thoroughly wash all thermometers between uses with soap and water or clean with alcohol pads. • -Seal all Petri dishes with Parafilm or masking tape. Never open a Petri dish with organisms in it; some organisms could be dangerous pathogens.

    46. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • Science of Cooking a Hamburger: Cooking Right • We will be following Page 59 in Teacher’s Guide to Middle Level Classrooms. • Some Reminders • Will be following same procedure for swabbing and using Petri dishes that we used earlier. • -Everything must be sterile – wash your hands properly, don’t let the swab touch anything but the meat, use an alcohol wipe to clean the thermometer each time you use it.

    47. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • Science of Cooking a Hamburger: Cooking Right • Raw

    48. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • Science of Cooking a Hamburger: Cooking Right • 120°F

    49. Module 4: Retail and Home – Middle Level • Science of Cooking a Hamburger: Cooking Right • 140°F