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Chapter 7. Technological Systems and Production Tools in Technology. Production Tools. Change the shape of materials to make them useful for human needs Help in the creation of artifacts. Objects made by human activity. Are created and maintained by humans

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Technological Systems

and

Production Tools in Technology

production tools
Production Tools
  • Change the shape of materials to make them useful for human needs
  • Help in the creation of artifacts. Objects made by human activity.
  • Are created and maintained by humans
  • Are used to make our lives easier
  • Social problems can be created by tools???
material processing
Material Processing
  • Tools and Machines
  • Changes the form of materials
  • Tools were used to cast, form, and machine materials into specific shapes
  • Tools also can be used to help assemble products and apply protective or decorative coatings
machine tools
Machine Tools
  • Machines used to make other machines.
  • The elements of machine tools include
    • What type of tool is it???
      • Single or Multiple Point Cutting Tool
    • What type of cutting motion is implemented???
      • Rotating, Reciprocating, or Linear
    • What type of support is used to machine the stock???
cutting tools
Cutting Tools
  • Cutting actions require a cutting tool
  • Cutting tools must be harder than the material being cut
  • Needs sharpened edges, relief angles, and rake angles
    • Sharpened edges cut the material
    • Relief angles keep the tool sides from rubbing against the material
    • Rake angles create a chip which allows waste materials to be carried away
types of cutting tools
Types of Cutting Tools
  • Single Point Cutting Tools
    • Contains a cutting edge on the end or along the edge of a rod, bar, or strip
  • Examples:
    • Chisels
    • Hand Planes
    • Knives
types of cutting tools cont
Types of Cutting Tools (cont.)
  • Multiple Point Cutting Tools
    • Series of single point tools arranged on a cutting device.
    • Can be arranged in a set or random pattern
  • Examples:
    • Saw teeth are in a set pattern
    • Abrasive paper and grinding wheels do not contain a set cutting arrangement
motion
Motion
  • Cutting Motion
    • The action that causes material to be removed from the work
  • Feed Motion
    • The action that brings new material into the cutter
  • To complete a cut both motions need to happen simultaneously
motion cont
Motion (Cont.)
  • Cutting and feed motions can be:
    • Rotating: Uses round cutters or spins the work around an axis
    • Linear: Moves the cutter or work in one direction along a straight line
    • Reciprocating: Moves the tool or work back and forth or up and down.
support
Support
  • The tool and work piece must be supported for proper operation.
  • Types of cutting and feed motions determine the type of support needed.
  • Rotating motions: Require a holder that will revolve around an axis.
  • Reciprocating motions: The blade is clamped at two ends within the machine. The blade moves back and forth or up and down and cuts on one movement of the saw blade.
  • Linear motions: Lathes use tools that are clamped in a holder or held on rest. Band Saw blades travel around two wheels while the material is supported by the machine table.
support cont
Support (Cont.)
  • Reciprocating motions: The blade is clamped at two ends within the machine. The blade moves back and forth or up and down and cuts on one movement of the saw blade.
  • Linear motions: Lathes use tools that are clamped in a holder or held on rest. Band Saw blades travel around two wheels while the material is supported by the machine table.
six categories of machine tools
Six Categories of Machine Tools
  • Turning Machines
  • Sawing Machines
  • Drilling Machines
  • Shaping Machines
  • Planing Machines
  • Grinding Machines
turning machines
Turning Machines
  • Turning: Process in which a workpiece is held and rotated on an axis.
    • This process is completed on machines called lathes.
    • Lathes produce their cutting motion by rotating the workpiece.
    • The feed motion is generated by linear movement of the tool.
lathe
Lathe
  • Precise machine tools used to machine wood, metal, and plastics.
  • Contain four main parts:
    • Headstock: Contains the machine’s power unit.
    • Tailstock: Supports the opposite end of a part that is gripped at the headstock.
      • The headstock and tailstock are attached to the bed of the lathe
lathe cont
Lathe (Cont.)
    • Tool rest or holder: Support the tool. On metal lathes the tool rest is clamped into position and is fed into or along the work. Wood lathes contain a flat tool rest where the operator moves the tool by hand.
  • Work can be held or clamped into place in two ways.
    • Between centers
      • Live Center: Rotate with the workpiece
      • Dead Center: Work rotates around the device
    • Within the headstock
lathe operations
Lathe Operations
  • Turning: Cutting along the length of the workpiece.
  • Tapering: Cutting along the length of a cylinder at a slight angle to produce a cylindrical shape with a uniformly decreasing diameter.
  • Facing: Cutting across the end of a rotating workpiece to produce a square end.
  • Grooving: Cutting into a workpiece to produce a channel with a diameter less than the main diameter of the workpiece.
lathe operations cont
Lathe Operations (Cont.)
  • Chamfering: Cutting an angled surface between two diameters on the workpiece.
  • Parting: Cutting off a part from the main workpiece.
  • Threading: Cutting threads along the outside diameter or inside a hole in the workpiece.
  • Knurling: Producing a diamond pattern of grooves on the outside diameter. This produces a gripping surface.
sawing machines
Sawing Machines
  • Use teeth on a blade to cut material to a desired shape and size.
  • Three basic groups of saws include:
    • Circular Saws
    • Band Saws
    • Scroll Saws
sawing machine cutting operations
Sawing Machine Cutting Operations
  • Crosscutting: Reducing the length of a material
  • Ripping: Reducing the width of material
  • Resawing: Reducing the thickness of material
  • Grooving, Dado, Notching: Cutting rectangular slots on or across a part
  • Chamfering and Beveling: Cutting an angled surface between two primary surfaces of a material.
circular saws
Circular Saws
  • Use a disk shaped blade with teeth arranged around an edge.
  • Three types of circular saws:
    • Table Saw
    • Radial Saw
    • Chop Saw
table saw
Table Saw
  • Uses a linear feed motion
  • Workpiece is pushed into the rotating blade.
  • The operator controls the rate of speed that the workpiece runs through at.
radial saw
Radial Saw
  • The rotating blade moves across the workpiece
  • The workpiece is positioned stationary on the saw table bed
chop saw
Chop Saw
  • Used to cut narrow strips of material to length
  • The blade is attached to a pivot arm assembly
  • The blade assembly is pivoted in a downward motion to produce the cut
  • Can create angled cuts
  • The sliding compound miter saw was created of the chop saw and the radial saw.
band saw
Band Saw
  • Uses a blade made from a continuous band or strip
  • The saw uses a continuous linear motion which generally travels around two wheels to perform a cut
  • Come in two styles:
    • Vertical
    • Horizontal
scroll saw
Scroll Saw
  • Uses a straight blade with teeth on one edge
  • The blade is clamped or pinned into the machine at one or most commonly at two ends.
  • This machine operates off the reciprocating motion.
drilling machines
Drilling Machines
  • Drilling: produces or enlarges holes using a rotating cutter.
  • The drill is moved into the work with a feed arm. This is the feed motion.
  • The rotating cutter head produces the cutting motion.
  • Two common types:
    • Stationary
    • Portable electric
drilling operations
Drilling Operations
  • Drilling: Producing straight cylindrical holes in a material
  • Counterboring: Producing two holes around the same center point. The outer hole has a larger diameter than the inner hole.
  • Countersinking: Producing a beveled outer portion of a hole.
  • Reaming: Enlarging the diameter of an existing hole.
common drilling tools
Common Drilling Tools
  • Twist Drills: shafts of steel with flutes along the shaft and points on the end to produce a chip
  • Spade Bits: Flat cutters on the end of a shaft
  • Forstner Bits: Two lipped cutters that produce a flat bottom hole. The are used for counterboring operations in woodworking.