Chapter 22.1 Oceanography. Place these answers onto your worksheets. Mid-1800s: Officer Maury uses naval logbooks to chart ocean currents and winds. 1872: British ship H.M.S. Challenger conducts study of ocean depths, water elements, temperatures, and currents.
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Place these answers onto your worksheets.
1872: British ship H.M.S. Challenger conducts study of ocean depths, water elements, temperatures, and currents.
1940s/WWII: Military development of submarines and surface ships leads to accurate ocean charts and improved equipment.
1. Liquid, solid, gas; Usually solid forms are most dense. Hydrogen bonds cause water molecules to attract each other, bringing them closer together. Hydrogen bonds freeze into an open but rigid pattern in the solid form.
1. Surface: mixed layer from surface to as much as 300 meters deep; temperatures determined by seasonal change and latitude, with range from 22°C to 30°C
2. Middle zone: bottom of mixed layer to about 1000 meters deep; temperature falls rapidly with depth to low of about 5°C.
3. Deep water below 1000 meters deep; around 2°C everywhere except for isolated waters.
1. Salinity is the amount of dissolved salts in water. Ocean water contains many different dissolved salts, but mostly sodium chloride. Salinity varies according to ocean depth, amount of fresh water entering, and temperature extremes.
2. Salts enter and leave the ocean through natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and sediment settling. Salts must enter and leave in balanced quantities.
1. Phytoplankton: free-floating microscopic plants; base of ocean food chain; live in mixed layer; create ocean energy with photosynthesis; can support populations of microscopic animals.
2. Zooplankton: live in mixed layer; microscopic marine animals; consume phytoplankton; provide food and animals large and small; moderate salinity during shell building.
3. Nekton: free-swimming marine organisms such as fish; live mostly in mixed layer, but some deeper; consume zooplankton and each other.
1. Coral are tiny marine animals and the skeletal remains they leave behind. Immobile coral feed on food carried by passing currents. The reefs formed of skeletal remains provide food and shelter for marine life and shore protection
2. With very limited oxygen in the water, only certain marine animals can survive in deep water. They don’t need sunlight. The smallest use chemosynthesis to produce food; others feed on these chemosynthetic bacteria. Ocean floor vents emit warm waters and help produce the hydrogen sulfide gas necessary for chemosynthesis.