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I. Introduction Terms & Concepts. Multi-faceted scientific issue - biology and chemistry some physics, geology, astronomy Subdisciplines Non-Biblical topic Distractions to the issue age of earth big bang plate tectonics Confusing terms and “evolving” jargon.

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I. Introduction Terms & Concepts


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slide1

I. Introduction

Terms & Concepts

slide2

Multi-faceted scientific issue

    • - biology and chemistry
    • some physics, geology, astronomy
    • Subdisciplines
  • Non-Biblical topic
  • Distractions to the issue
    • age of earth
    • big bang
    • plate tectonics
  • Confusing terms and “evolving” jargon
slide4

Change Over Time

  • Chemical Evolution (called “abiogenesis”):
  • self-organization of life from non-life
slide5

Change Over Time

  • Chemical Evolution (called “abiogenesis”):
  • self-organization of life from non-life
  • General Evolution (called “macroevolution”):
  • simple to complex, an extrapolation, a model
slide6

Complex Life

Simple Life

slide7

Change Over Time

  • Chemical Evolution (called “abiogenesis”):
  • self-organization of life from non-life
  • General Evolution (also “macroevolution”):
  • simple to complex, an extrapolation, a model
  • Special Evolution (like “microevolution”):
  • changes within a gene pool, testable
  • Related concepts:
  • Theistic Evolution, Exobiology, Progressive Creation
slide8

9%

Atheistic Evolution

40%

Theistic Evolution

47%

Creation

1999 Gallup Poll: overall stats

When stats are “broken down…”

many educated people believe in theistic evolution

slide10

No Evolution

“Fixity of Species”

slide11

Gene

Pool

Special Evolution

Gene

Pool

Gene

Pool

Gene

Pool

Gene

Pool

slide12

Gene

Pool

slide13

Gene

Pool

slide15

“Species” not equal to “Kind”

(A.J. Jones, 1972)

Biblical Language

Kind

Secular Language

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

slide17

Male Guppies with “few predators”

Male Guppies with “many predators”

slide18

“Evolution”

via “speciation”

Common ancestor?

Then, species evolve from species … to a point.

slide22

“…the very first cause, which was certainly not mechanical.

It is unphilosophical to seek for any other origin of the world or to pretend that it might arise out of a chaos by the mere laws of nature.”

Isaac Newton

slide23

Life from life (Biogenesis: bio - genesis)

  • Life from non-life (Abiogenesis: a - bio - genesis)

… not the “First Cause” issue (cosmology)

… related to the “Design” issue (teleology)

… like “Intelligence vs. Matter” question

slide24

Clarifying the Issue

- abiogenesis -

  • Abiogenesis is “chemical evolution.”
  • It is the doctrine of unassisted “self-organization.”
  • Bible teaches life from non-living building blocks.

Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being. (Gen 2:7)

Out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky…. (Gen 2:19)

  • More relevant, Bible teaches life from the livingGod.
slide25

Scientific Support?

- Mathematics of Self-Organization -

  • Computer models
  • Virtual, not real Biochemistry
  • Not highly regarded by many biochemists
  • “Fact-free” science
  • Kauffman vs. Dembski
slide26

Primordia

Scientific Support?

- Chemistry of Self-Organization -

slide27

Specifically ...

... what are the steps?

slide29

Amino acids

Most AA

Peptides

Adenine

slide30

H

H

COO-

COO-

+H3N

+H3N

C

C

R

R

H2O

slide31

Assumes early atmosphere was reducing (no O2)

  • Does not imply formation of complex molecules
  • Requires intelligence
slide32

Building blocks?

Maybe, including

“non-life” forms.

slide33

What we have made ...

What we have left to make ...

Bricks, or half bricks

Manhattan

slide34

“We have reached a situation where a theory has been accepted as fact by some, and possible contrary evidence is shunted aside.”

It is “mythology rather than science.”

Robert Shapiro, 1986

(Dep of Chemistry, SUNY)

slide36

If not proteins, then what? RNA?

Adenine

(RNA also a “ribozyme”)

(Modified to input HCN)

slide38

3 other bases needed for RNA

  • All need a sugar-phosphate
slide39

Still requires 3 other bases (likely)

  • Bases must bond to sugar-phosphate
  • All nucleotides need to organize in exact sequence (100s of them)
slide40

Still requires 3 other bases (likely)

  • Bases must bond to sugar-phosphate
  • All nucleotides need to organize in exact sequence (100s of them)
  • Need DNA at some point
  • DNA has extra nucleotide
  • Its nucleotides must be in sequence (500,000 at least)
  • Then, it must FUNCTION

(often argued that first life

did not have DNA

… the “RNA World”)

slide41

“We have reached a situation where a theory has been accepted as fact by some, and possible contrary evidence is shunted aside.”

It is “mythology rather than science.”

Robert Shapiro, 1986

PhD, Dep of Chemistry, SUNY

slide43

Adenine: half of a building block.

The machine:

A city block

of

Manhattan

The cell:

Manhattan

Life from RNA World?

slide44

“Scientists interested in the origins of life seem to divide neatly into two classes. The first, usually but not always molecular biologists, believe that RNA must have been the first replicating molecule and that chemists are exaggerating the difficulties of nucleotide synthesis.”

“The second group of scientists are more pessimistic. They believe that the de novo appearance of oligonucleotides on the primitive earth would have been a near miracle.”

G.F. Joyce and L.E. Orgel, 1998

slide45

“Unfortunately, the optimism surrounding the RNA world ignores known chemistry. In many ways the RNA-world fad of the 1990’s is reminiscent of the Stanley Miller phenomenon during the 1960’s: hope struggling valiantly against experimental data.”

Michael Behe, Dep of Biology, Lehigh University

slide48

Proteinoids

  • Microspheres
  • Protocells
  • Progenote (now called the “Universal Ancestor”)

“protocells”

cyanobacteria

slide49

“An honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now, could only state that in some sense, the origin of life appears at the moment to be almost a miracle….”

Francis Crick

slide51

Life from non-life (Abiogenesis: a - bio - genesis)

  • Life from life elsewhere (Biogenesis: bio - genesis)

no intelligence

intelligence

slide52

Life from Life Elsewhere

  • Exobiology: life on other planets
  • Directed Panspermia: cells sent here from aliens
slide53

“…life was sent here in the form of bacteria suitable for growth in anaerobic conditions, and that several somewhat different forms would probably have been sent at the same time, in hope that at least one would survive.”

    • Francis Crick
slide56

= gene pool

Complex Life

Simple Life

slide57

Is Special Evolution

related to

General Evolution?

slide58

Question: Does special evolution ...

… plus billions of years …

… necessitate general evolution?

slide59

… does not necessarily imply …

/

Special Evolution + Time = General Evolution

…plus time…

slide60

Is Special Evolution

related to

General Evolution?

Academically. General Evolution is a model assumed from Special Evolution.

slide61

Data

Extrapolation

slide62

Known

Unknown…

but stated as known

slide63

Darwin’s Finches:

General Evolution? Special Evolution? Evolution?

  • Typical study
    • Excellent procedure
    • Generous extrapolations
  • Jonathan Wells, 2000
slide64

Grant Studies on Galapagos

Tower

Pacific Ocean

equator

EQUADOR

James

Bartolome

Galapagos

Islands

Baltra

Fernandia

Daphne

Major

Island

Santa Cruz

Isabela

Floreana

Hood

slide65

Medium ground finch

Common ancestor? Anyone dispute possibility?

slide66

1970’s

    • Tagged every “individual” medium ground finch
    • Recorded adult weight, beak size, and diet
    • Recorded mating and offspring
    • Documented seed diversity and availability
    • Recorded climatic data (rainfall)
slide67

1997: Drought Year

    • 1” during rainy season; normal = 5”
    • Fewer seed
    • Small soft seed depleted
    • Loss of 85% individuals
    • Survivors were larger
    • Survivors had 5% larger beaks (beak “depth”)
slide68

}

5% increase in beak size

1997 drought…

“…a selection event.”

Change

in

Beak Depth

1977

Time

slide69

}

5% increase in beak size

  • Is this evolution? Even special evolution?
  • Possibly, birds evolve from birds
  • But only a half mm change in beak
  • Also, no new species named
  • Beak size stable?

Change

in

Beak Depth

1977

Time

slide70

If beak size kept increasing…

“about 20 selection events would have sufficed”

for all finches on Galapagos to have evolved.

Droughts occur once per decade, so…

… 1 drought per 10 years

… 20 droughts = 200 years

(Grant, 1991)

slide71

“3 selection events”

(need 17 more)

Change

in

Beak Depth

drought

drought

drought

Time

slide72

1982: El Nino year

    • 5 times normal rainfall
    • 10 times rainfall of previous year
    • Small soft seed replenished
    • Bird population increased
    • Birds in 1983 were smaller
    • Birds in 1983 had smaller beaks
slide73

?

“no net change”

Change

in

Beak Depth

1977

1984

Time

slide74

“… a reversal in the direction of selection.”

(Gibbs and Grant, 1987)

“Selection had flipped … the birds took a giant step backward after their giant step forward.”

(Weiner, 1994)

“… the population is oscillating back and forth ….”

(Grant, 1991)

slide75

No “net” evolution occurring, even special evolution

  • No “simple-to-complex” (directional)
  • The “truth” has changed in 10 years
  • More to say…
    • - Species are merging (evolution in reverse)
    • - Claims of evidence for general evolution continue
    • - These were not Darwin’s finches
slide76

Darwin’s theory of the origin of the species “fits the facts of Darwin’s finch evolution on the Galapagos Islands,” and “the driving force” is natural selection.

(Grant and Grant, 1996, 1998)

This “illustrates how we can extrapolate from natural selection operating within a species to explain the diversification of the finches from a single common ancestor.”

(Ridley, 1996)

slide77

Today

Billions of

years ago

slide78

The Science

  • Collected 9 of the 13 finches, identifying 6 as finches
  • Only twice observed differences in their diets
  • Failed to correlate diet with beak shape
  • Did not separate them by island
    • (this was done by John Gould upon return to England)
    • (much of Darwin’s info corrected by shipmate records)

“Darwin possessed only a limited and largely erroneous conception of both the feeding habits and the geographical distribution of these birds.”

(Sulloway, 1982, 1984)

slide79

The Myth

“…the correspondence between the beaks of the 13 finches and their food source immediately suggested to Darwin that evolution had shaped them.”

Raven and Johnson, 1999

Students can “imagine themselves in Darwin’s place” and “write journal pages that Darwin could have written.”

Johnson, 1998

slide80

What do we learn from this study?

  • No Scientific Problems … Scientist Problems
  • Special evolution, if occurred, was extrapolated to general evolution
      • (data that agreed with the Bible—birds evolving into birds—presented as contradicting the Bible.)
  • No simple-to-complex, but used as such
  • Darwin seeing finches described as sudden finding
    • - in reality, this is a myth
    • - the finch is a “holy relic”
  • (Wells, 2000)
slide82

Intelligence

or Life

Simple

Life

Complex

Life

(Billions of years)

(Billions of years)

Theistic Evolution

Biogenesis + General Evolution

  • common decent with God’s help
  • general evolution minus naturalism
slide83

?

Common Descent? Simple to Complex?

Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being. (Gen 2:7)

Out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them…. (Gen 2:19)

slide86

Invalid Use of Terms

“Special Evolution” not recognized

or is used interchangeably with “Evolution.”

slide87

Known

Unknown…

but stated as known

slide88

Non-

Life

Simple

Life

Complex

Life

Invalid Concept

There are two choices.

slide89

Non-

Life

Simple

Life

Complex

Life

Invalid Claim

Abiogenesis + General Evolution

are undisputed by reputable scientists.

http://www.discovery.org/csc/scienceEducation/

slide90

Invalid Strawman

“Creationists believe in fixity of species”

“Scientific creationists believe … that all species of organisms were individually created looking just like they do today.”

Raven and Johnson

slide91

A Good Comparision?

Evolution

Creation

slide92

A Good Comparision?

Creation

Faith

Evolution

Science

slide93

A Good Comparision?

Creation

Faith

Oral history

Evolution

Science

Natural history

slide94

A Good Comparision?

Creation

Faith

Oral history

Myth

Evolution

Science

Natural history

Fact

slide95

“Science tells us how;

Religion tells us why.”

slide96

A Scientific Consideration

Special Evolution:

provable, proven

General Evolution:

not provable

slide97

A Fair Philosophical Question

Creation:

not “provable”

General Evolution:

not “provable”

slide98

V. How is this issue addressed?

  • Teaching the creation account (Bible)
slide99

V. How is this issue addressed?

  • Teaching the creation account (Bible)
  • Poor teaching on evolution (science)
slide100

But even to this day, when Moses is read,

a veil lies on their heart.

Nevertheless when one turns to the Lord,

the veil is taken away.

2 Cor 3:15-16 NKJ

slide102

“Science is knowledge.

Evolution is a theory, not knowledge.

Therefore, evolution is not science.”

slide105

“Let the earth sprout vegetation:

plants yielding seed, and

fruit trees on the earth bearing fruit

after their kind with seed in them ….” (Gen 1:11)

slide108

… always be ready to give a defense

to everyone who asks you

a reason for the hope that is in you,

with meekness and fear.

I Pet 3:15 NKJ

slide109

Knowing, therefore, the terror of the Lord,

we persuade men.

2 Cor 5:11 NKJ

slide110

V. How is this issue addressed?

  • Teaching the creation account (Bible)
  • Poor teaching on evolution (science)
  • No teaching
slide111

So David inquired of the LORD, saying,

“Shall I go up against the Philistines?”

2 Sam 5:19 NKJ

slide113

Who is this uncircumcised Philistine,

that he should taunt the armies of the living God?

1 Sam 17:26 NKJ

slide115

Now while Paul waited for them at Athens,

his spirit was provoked within him

when he saw that the city was given over to idols.

Acts 17:16 NKJ

slide117

Yet, if you warn the wicked,

and he does not turn from his wickedness,

nor from his wicked way,

he shall die in his iniquity;

But you have delivered your soul.

Ezek 3:19 NKJ

slide118

V. How is this issue addressed?

  • Teaching the creation account (Bible)
  • Poor teaching on evolution (science)
  • No teaching
slide119

www.arn.org

www.discovery.org

www.answersingenesis.org

www.talkorigins.org

www.pandasthumb.org

slide122

Who knows

whether you have come to the kingdom

for such a time as this?

Esther 4:14 NKJ

slide123

VI. A more excellent way

  • Do it!
  • Learn what to say.
slide124

VI. A more excellent way

  • Do it!
  • Learn what to say.
  • Be sympathetic.
slide125

For though I am free from all men,

I have made myself a servant to all, t

hat I might win the more;

… to the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might win Jews;

… to those who are without law, as without law

that I might win those who are without law;

… to the weak I became as weak,

that I might win the weak.

I have become all things to all men,

that I might by all means save some.

1 Cor 9:19-22 NKJ

slide126

To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might win Jews;

To the weak I became as weak, that I might win the weak.

To the contemporary scientist, I became ?,

that I might fight instead of trying to win them.

I have become all things to all men,

except to contemporary scientists.

??

slide127

VI. A more excellent way

  • Do it!
  • Learn what to say.
  • Be sympathetic.
  • Trust in the Lord.
slide128

Only Luke is with me.

2 Tim 4:11 NKJ

slide129

Scientists

  • You are trained for this.
  • You are blessed, talented, needed.
  • Many count on you.
  • You are not saving souls through science.
  • You are trying to remove obstacles.
  • Take a stand. Fight. Do not be my brother.
  • Speak the truth in love; persuade people.
  • Make central arguments. Avoid the periphery.
  • Make the logical arguments.
  • Be honest.
  • Stay in your lane.
  • Pray.
slide130

Evangelists

  • You can persuade atheists and agnostics.
  • You have training in the scriptures.
  • You may not have training in science.
  • “Speak the truth in love.”
  • Know the basics.
  • Learn the minimal language.
  • Be careful of blanket statements.
  • Ask help from the scientists.
  • “Do not fear their intimidation.”
  • Be aware of your effect on the members.
slide131

And when they heard of the resurrection of the dead,

some mocked, while others said,

"We will hear you again on this matter."

So Paul departed from among them.

However, some men joined him and believed ....

Acts 17:32-34 NKJ

slide132

www.arn.org

www.discovery.org

www.answersingenesis.org

www.talkorigins.org

www.pandasthumb.org