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How to write a scientific article PowerPoint Presentation
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How to write a scientific article

How to write a scientific article

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How to write a scientific article

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  1. How to write a scientific article Nikolaos P. Polyzos M.D. PhD

  2. Well-written papers are: • Read • Remembered • Cited Poorly written papers are not… 2

  3. What journal? • Select the journal relevant to the work done • Read the ‘guidelines for authors’ on the website of the journal • Depends on the ‘quality’ of the research performed • Innovative • Design of the study • Size of the study • Human or Animal • Effect on clinical practice 3

  4. Title • Describes the contents of the paper • As short as possible • Descriptive words: ‘Key words’ • The molecule studies • The organism used • The treatment • The outcome measured • Opinion paper: Catchy title ‘OHSS free clinic’ • A majority of readers finds your paper via electronic database searches 4

  5. Authors The Vancouver Criteria Each and every author on a publication needs to have been involved in the: • Conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data AND • Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content AND • Final approval of the version to be published 5

  6. Authors Why does the number of author increase with years? 6

  7. Abstract Summarizes the major aspects • Question(s) you investigated • From introduction • Experimental design • From Material and Methods • Major findings and key quantitative results • From results • Interpretation and conclusions • From discussion 7

  8. Abstract Summarizes the major aspects • All information in the abstract should appear in the body of the paper • No lengthy background information • No references • No abbreviations • No figures, tables or references to them 8

  9. Introduction • Establish the context of the work reported • Cite the primary research literature 9

  10. Introduction It is the most important part….. When the reviewers read it they need to know why you did the study…. CONVINCE THEM! 10

  11. Introduction • Establish the context of the work reported • Cite the primary research literature • State the purpose of the work • Hypothesis, question or problem • Explain your rationale and approach • Possible outcomes your study can reveal 11

  12. Material and Methods Helps others to reproduce your experiments • Describe the organism(s)/patients studies • Location, numbers… • Sampling design • Controls, treatments, outcome measures • Protocol for collecting data • How study was performed • How data were analyzed • Statistics 12

  13. Results • Key results without interpretation: concise and objective • Use both text and illustration • Organize result section based on the sequence of Tables and Figures • Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percent's, etc. 13

  14. Discussion • To interpret your results in light of what was already known • Always connect with the introduction 14

  15. Discussion Fundamental questions to answer: • Do your results provide answers to your hypothesis? • Do your findings agree with what others have shown? • Given your conclusions: what is the new understanding? • What would you do next? 15

  16. Discussion • Stay focused on the research topic of the paper • Use paragraphs to separate each important point • Present your points in logical order • Do not introduce new results 16

  17. Which is the evidence to cite in your article Can systematic reviews and meta-analyses always give you the best available evidence….. EVEN WITH ZERO TRIALS???? 17

  18. Meta-analysis and number of trials included • 61 systematic reviews published during July 2012 in Cochrane • 15% of the reviews included 1or 0 trials • Half included fewer than 1,000 randomized patients. • 31 were updated reviews, • 11 of these 31 updated reviews included the same number of trials and participants as the previous review they sought to bring up to date. 18

  19. Acknowledgments • Assistance in thinking, designing, carrying out work, providing medication • Outside reviewers of the draft • Sources of funding 19

  20. References • List of cited articles • Order/style: depends on the journal • Software available (endnote, reference manager,…) 20

  21. Finally • Self-revise your paper • Enhance the logical flow of your arguments • Shorten long sentences to clarify them • Perform spelling check • Revision by native English speaker • Check the word count (abstract, whole article…) • Read your article many times before you submit….like it is not yours • Try to find flaws—be the most critical reviewer of your self 21

  22. Thank you