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TYPES OF REPRODUCTION AND MEIOSIS. UNIT 5: Chapter 11. TYPES OF REPRODUCTION. Asexual Reproduction does not include joining of gametes. SPORES are asexual because they do not have to fuse to another cell. BUD becomes new individual.

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asexual reproduction does not include joining of gametes
Asexual Reproduction does not include joining of gametes

SPORES are asexual because they do not have to fuse to another cell.

BUD becomes new individual

FRAGMENTATION: Pieces of organism develop into a new whole organism (Starfish and planarian are examples)

Hydra

BINARY FISSION: Individual divides to produce new offspring

PARTHENOGENESIS:unfertilized eggs develop into individuals (some fish, several insects, few species of frogs and lizards)

Bacteria

sexual reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

Process of sexual reproduction in which male and female gametes join to form a new cell (zygote).

Gametes are called sex cells.

sexual versus asexual reproduction
Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction

Asexual

  • NO FUSION of gametes
  • Very little GENETIC variation
  • MANY OFFSPRING in short time without having to find mate
  • LESS genetic variation causes LESS ability to ADAPT to changing environment

Sexual

GAMETES fuse to form zygote

VARIED GENES are produced

Genetic VARIATION allows for greater ADAPTATION in changing environment

slide7

Meiosis

gametes

When gametes (egg and sperm) unite during fertilization, each gamete contributes one allele.

slide8
DRAW AND LABEL A CHROMOSOME

Identical chromatids

centromere

chromatid

chromosome
Chromosome

Identical Chromatids

Centromere

chromatid

  • DNA strands coiled around proteins
  • Formed during cell division
  • Contains specific genes on each chromosome
  • Found only in nucleus of cell
  • Diploid organisms have 2 of each chromosome, one from each parent
  • Haploid organisms have one of each chromosome
  • Somatic chromosomes are in different sizes and shapes
  • Number if chromosomes are different for each species
    • Humans: 46 (23 pairs)
  • Sex chromosomes ore either X or Y.
    • Females receive XX
    • males receive XY
formation of chromosome
Formation of chromosome

Tightly coiled strands form chromosome

DNA/Protein strands coil tightly

DNA strands wrap around proteins

DNA = twisted ladder of nucleotides

where are chromosomes found
Where are chromosomes found?
  • Chromosomes are found in

the nucleus of our eukaryotic

cells.

  • Many organisms have a different numbers of chromosomes in their cells
    • Fruit fly 4 chromosomes
    • human 46 chromosomes
what are gametes
What are gametes?
  • Also known as a sex cell.
    • 23 chromosomes in sperm (male gamete).
    • 23 chromosomes in egg (female gamete).
  • Gametes are a product of meiosis.
  • Meiosis is the process which the number of chromosomes cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes.
    • 2 part process.
    • Process results in 4 gametes.

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meiosis1
Meiosis

Meiosis- The process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of gametes in animals and spores in plants.

meiosis2
Meiosis
  • Two phases of cell division (Meiosis 1 and 2)
  • Produces cells with half the number of chromosomes (Haploid)
    • Haploid cells have one of each chromosome
    • Haploid cells (sperm and egg) join to form zygote
  • Meiosis allows genetic variation
    • Joining of gametes makes new combinations of genes for each new individual
law of independent assortment
Law of independent assortment

PpTt

meiosis

pT

PT

Pt

pt

4 haploid gametes: one of each chromosome

Alleles of different genes separate independently of one another

homologous chromosomes
Homologous chromosomes
  • Same shape
  • Same size
  • Same type of genes
  • One from each parent

One chromosome from each parent

crossing over occurs during prophase i
Crossing over occurs during Prophase I

New genetic combination

  • creates new combination of genes
  • occurs between two homologous chromosomes
gametogenesis process of making gametes
Gametogenesis: Process of making gametes

Most of cytoplasm from three cells is combined into one egg cell

when meiosis goes bad
When Meiosis Goes Bad…..

http://www.infertilityivfhouston.com/images/Sperm-morphology.jpg

what is a karyotype
What is a karyotype?

A karyotype is a set of photographed chromosomes grouped by pairs.

how is sex determined video
CHROMOSOME

PAIR ARE CALLED

SEX CHROMOSOMES:

IF XX= FEMALE

IF XY= MALE

AUTOSOMES

Chromosomes #1-22 are called

How is sex determined? Video

HUMAN MALE KAROTYPE

HUMAN FEMALE KARYOTYPE

what happens if there are 3 chromosomes on your 21 chromosome
What happens if there are 3 chromosomes on your 21 chromosome?

ANSWER: DOWN SYNDROME

homologous chromosomes1
Homologous chromosomes
  • Same shape
  • Same size
  • Same type of genes
  • One from each parent

One chromosome from each parent

which letter is an example of meiosis which letter is an example of fertilization
Which letter is an example of meiosis?Which letter is an example of fertilization?

Letter A is an example of meiosis. Letter B is an example of fertilization.

chromosomal mutations
 Chromosomal Mutations

Section 12-4

Deletion

Duplication

Inversion

Translocation

is albinism caused by a genetic mutation
IS albinism caused by a genetic mutation?
  • Albinism (from Latinalbus, meaning "white") is a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. It is an inherited condition resulting from the combination of recessive genes passed from both parents of an individual. This condition is known to affect mammals, fish, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
caused by a genetic mutation
Caused by a genetic mutation?

World’s Largest Feline

is the caused by a genetic mutation
Is the caused by a genetic mutation?
  • A clubfoot is a common birth defect.
down syndrome1
Down Syndrome
  • Defect (extra chromo) on the 21st chromosome.
diseases
DISEASES

Can be caused by 2 things:

  • The environment that surrounds you.
  • Your inherited genes .

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBfWybm0218&feature=related

(vytorin commercial)

what disorders are sex linked
What disorders are sex-linked?

Baldness

Hemophilia (free bleeder)

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Progressive loss of muscle)

Red-green colorblindness

These disorders are only found on the 23rd (sex) chromosomes.

colorblindness
Colorblindness
  • Are you color blind?
what disorders are autosomal
What disorders are autosomal?

Recall, alleles are different forms of genes.

  • Disorders caused by recessive alleles: albinism, cystic fibrosis, galactosemia, phenylketonuria(PKU), Tay-Sachs disease
  • Disorders caused by dominant alleles: achondroplasia, huntington’s disease, hyperchlesterolemia
  • Disorders caused by codominant genes: sickle cell anemia
recessive disorders
Recessive Disorders

Sickle Cell anemia (abnormal hemoglobin molecules

Results in poor blood circulation

Tay-Sachs Disease (defective form of a brain enzyme)

Results in deterioration of nervous system in infants- early death

Cystic Fibrosis (Defective chloride-ion transport protein)

Excessive mucous accumulation in organs, especially lungs- die young

environmental influences on traits
Environmental Influences on Traits

Hydrangea flower color is due to amount of acid in soil

Temperature affects changes in fox color from winter to summer

Darker parts of Siamese cat are a lower temperature, e.g., ears, nose, paws and tail

Height in humans is influenced by temperature, such as internal environmental condition.

pedigree chart
Pedigree Chart

Normal female

Affected female

Carrier female

Normal male

  • Reading pedigree charts:
    • If both males and females have disorder, then trait is autosomal (on other chromosomes)
    • If trait shows up mostly in males, then trait is sex-linked (on the X chromosome)

Affected male

parents

Children in birth order