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Chapter 17 (2012 Edition) Hairstyling. Hairstyling or dressing the hair ~ direct relation to the fashion, art, and life of the times Ready-to-wear clothing ~ wash-and-wear hair. educate clients in ~ home care maintenance

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Chapter 17

(2012 Edition)



Hairstyling or dressing the hair

  • ~ direct relation to the fashion, art, and life of the times
  • Ready-to-wear clothing
  • ~ wash-and-wear hair


educate clients in

  • ~ home care maintenance
  • ~ styling options for their hair
  • Clients will judge your
  • work by the finished
  • style


Think retro-out of style today may be back tomorrow


Client Consultation

  • First step in the hairstyling process
  • Take into consideration
  • ~ face shape
  • ~ hair type
  • ~ lifestyle


Be a creative problem solver

  • If you create a style that is flattering and easy to manage, clients will be most loyal


Wet Hairstyling Basics

  • Tools:
    • Combs
    • Brushes
    • Rollers
    • Clips
    • Pins
    • Clamps


Finger Waving

  • Shaping and directing the hair into an “S” pattern through the use of fingers, combs, and waving lotion
  • Teaches you the technique of moving and directing the hair



Add to side bar:

  • Finger waves develop:
  • Dexterity (finger)
  • Finger strength
  • Coordination,r:9,s:214&tx=89&ty=47


Finger Waving Lotion

  • Gel that makes hair pliable, keeps hair in place
  • Made from karaya gum
  • Found in trees in Africa and India
  • Good lotion is harmless to the hair and does not flake when it dries

Pin Curls

  • Parts of a Curl
  • Base-closest to the scalp
  • Stem-between the base and the first arc
  • ~ gives direction and movement
  • Circle-forms a complete circle
  • ~ size of circle determines the width of the wave and its strength



Mobility of a Curl

  • Stem determines the mobility or movement
  • No-stem curl:
  • -placed directly on the base
  • -produces tight, firm, long-lasting curl
  • -minimum mobility
  • Name the pin curls that have a no-stem curl.

Half-stem curl:

-medium movement

-half off base

Name the pin curl with this stem.

Full-stem curl:

-greatest mobility

-off the base

-strong, definite direction (waves, not curl)


Shaping for Pin Curl Placements

~ section is molded in a circular movement

***Ex. Maypoles

Open and Closed Center Curls

Open-smooth waves and uniform curls

Closed-smaller, fine hair, fluffy curl


Curl and Stem Direction

  • Terms:
  • Clockwise
  • Counterclockwise

Base Pin Curls or Foundations

Rectangular base:

-recommended on front hairline

-smooth upsweep effect

Name the pin curl with

this base, then add to

side bar.


Triangular base:

-use at front or facial hairline

-prevents breaks and splits

Arc base:


-gives good direction

-used at hairline

Which pin curl uses each of these bases? Add to side bar.



Square base:

  • -curly styles without volume
  • List the two pin curls that have this base.
  • Add to side bar.
  • Add to side bar:
  • Pin at the base through ½ of
  • the circle
  • Incorrect-pinning through
  • whole circle


Pin Curl Techniques

  • Ribboning-forcing the hair between the thumb and the back of the comb to create tension
  • ***smoothes the strand/more even results
  • Carved or Sculptured Curls
  • Formed without lifting the hair
      • ***used to finish the hairline in fingerwaves

Designing with Pin Curls

Barrel Curls

-large center openings

-rectangular base

-similar to roller/not as much tension

***will not last as long as rollers

Creating Volume with Pin Curls

Cascade or Stand-Up Curls

-create height



Roller Curls

  • Advantages over pin curls:
  • Much faster
  • Wrapped with tension/stronger, longer-lasting set
  • Variety of sizes
  • Broadens creative possibilities

Parts of a Roller Curl

Base (section)

-same length and width as the roller


-first turn

-direction and mobility

Curl or Circle

-determines size of wave or curl

Fig. 17-29 Fig. 17-30


Determine the good and bad qualities of these two roller sets.


Choosing Your Roller Size

  • One complete turn creates a C-shaped curl
  • One-and-a-half turns create a wave
  • Two-and-a-half turns create curls

Roller Placement

On base-full volume

-sits directly on its base

-over-direct (135 degree angle)

Half base-medium volume

-sits halfway on its base and halfway behind the base

-hold strand straight up (90 degree angle)


Off base-least volume

  • - sits completely off base
  • * under-direct
  • - 45degrees down from base
  • Roller Direction
  • Placement of rollers follows the movement of the finished style
  • ***how you set is how you comb out

Hot Rollers

  • Used on dry hair
  • Stay in for 10-20 minutes
  • Less strong of curl than wet set (rollers)
  • Stronger and longer-lasting
  • than curling iron



Velcro Rollers

  • Add to side bar:
  • Not legal in Pa beauty schools
  • Salons must remove hair and disinfect between each client
  • Used on dry hair
  • Wet hair will snag and pull the hair
  • Leave in for 5-10 minutes


Fabric grips hair and stays in place

  • Mist hair with hairspray
  • Can place client under hooded dryer for 5-10 minutes
  • ***Review page 96 for disinfection procedure

Comb-out Techniques

  • Good set leads to good comb out
  • If you follow well-structured system of combing out hairstyles, you will save time and get more even results (on test-organized order)
  • *** after the tease
  • ~ start at bottom
  • ~ place hair as you go up to the crown
  • ~ bring in the sides
  • ~ top is last

Back-combing and Back-brushing Techniques


-called teasing, ratting, matting, or French lacing

-mats hair at the scalp

-forms a cushion



-called ruffing

-soft cushion


-used for up-dos

-adds a little height

-after hot rollers or blow-drying

***read techniques list


Hair Wrapping

  • Used to keep curly hair smooth and straight
  • Very little volume-hair at scalp is not lifted
  • Done on wet or dry hair

http:/ 4409310 summary-hair-care...

Read “Here’s a Tip” and “Caution”


Blow-dry Styling

  • Technique of drying and styling damp hair in one operation
  • Women desire hairstyles that require the least time and effort to maintain
  • Guide and educate the client through this process
  • The client’s first impression of the haircut you have done will be determined by the quality of the blow-dry


Add to side bar:

  • Warm air “molds” the hair (into the desired shape)
  • Cool air “sets” and removes frizz (smoothes and looks like a curling was used)
  • Demonstration on mannequin

Tools for Blow-dry Styling

Blow-dryer-an electrical appliance designed for drying and styling the hair

Concentrator-is a directional feature

-creates a stream of air

Diffuser-air flows more softly

-keeps textural definition


Not on test: good to know-clients will ask.

***Ionic blow dryers and curling irons infuse the hair with beneficial negative ions that seal the hair cuticle, eliminate frizz, and create shiny, silky, healthy hair.

***Ionic blow dryers dry hair quicker than regular blow dryers by breaking up the water in the hair into smaller particles which can evaporate faster.


Keep blow-dryer perfectly clean and free of dirt, oil, and hair

  • Air intake at back of blow-dryer must be clear at all times
  • If intake is covered, dryer element will burn out prematurely


Combs and Picks

  • Teeth closely spaced remove definition from curl
  • Creates a smooth surface
  • Widely spread teeth give a more textured surface
  • Comb with pick on the one end lift the hair away from the head



  • Classic styling brush
  • Half-round, rubber based
  • Seven or nine rows
  • Nylon bristles
  • Heat-resistant/antistatic
  • Little volume
  • Less suitable for smooth classic looks



Paddle brush

  • Large, flat base
  • For mid-to longer-length hair
  • Keeps hair from snagging


Grooming brushes

  • Mixture of boar and nylon bristles
  • Boar bristles-distribute the scalp oils/gives shine
  • Nylon bristles-stimulate circulation of blood to the scalp
  • Adds polish and shine to fine to medium hair
  • Great for combing out updos


Vent brushes

  • Speeds up blow-dry process
  • Ideal for fine hair
  • And adding lift at the scalp


Round brushes

  • Various diameters
  • Metal cylinder bases-heat transferred creates a stronger curl
  • Cooling button “sets” the hair in the new shape


Teasing brush

  • Thin nylon styling brush
  • Good for back-combing
  • Use the sides of the bristles to smooth into the desired style
  • Sectioning Clips
  • Keep whatever wet hair you are not working with sectioned off
  • Do not allow wet hair to sit over dry hair


Styling Products

  • “liquid tools”
  • Gives style more hold
  • Adds shine and curl
  • Takes away curl
  • Greatly enhances style


Know, to determine correct product for client:

  • How long the style needs to hold
  • What environmental conditions-dryness, humidity, wind, sun
  • Type of hair
  • Heavier products work by causing strands of hair to cling together, adding more pronounced
  • definition
  • Can weigh the hair down, especially fine hair
  • Range from light to very firm hold

Types of Styling Products

  • Foam or mousse
  • light, airy, whipped styling product
  • Good for fine hair
  • Does not weigh hair down
  • Excellent for drier, more porous hair



  • Thickened styling preparation
  • Strongest control for slicked or molded styles
  • Gives distinct texture when spread with fingers
  • Creates long-lasting body
  • Firm-hold gel may
  • overwhelm fine hair


Liquid gels or texturizers

  • Lighter more viscous (liquid)
  • Good for all hair types
  • Offer firmer, longer hold for fine hair with least amount of heaviness
  • Gives a lighter, more moderate
  • hold for normal or coarse
  • hair



  • As you style the client’s hair, talk about the products you are using to achieve the desired look, and why
  • Have client hold product while you demonstrate the uses and benefits of each product…


Straightening gel

  • Creates a smooth, straight look
  • Counters frizz
  • Temporary
  • Becomes undone in extremely humid conditions


  • Sprayed at the base of fine, wet hair
  • Adds volume
  • Add a light gel or mousse to the rest of the hair for more hold
  • Avoid the base (with the gel)


Pomade or wax

  • Adds considerable weight
  • Used on dry hair
  • Very easy to mold
  • Greater manageability
  • Use sparingly on fine hair
  • Excellent on short hair
  • * Demonstrate use



  • Adds gloss and sheen
  • While creating textural definition
  • Non-oily silicone products/all hair types
  • Provides protection while blow-drying
  • Or at the very end for shine
  • Spray shines/no weight
  • Aquage “Beyond Shine”


Hair spray or finishing spray

  • Form of a mist to hold style in
  • Most widely used product
  • Finishing spray used when style is complete and will not be disturbed
  • ***Build-up removal treatments work well to cleanse the hair from all products
  • ***Baking soda removes hair spray build up in one minute

Page 466

  • Direct the stream of air from the blow-dryer over the curl in a back-and-forth motion
  • Service Tip-page 466
  • Never hold the blow-dryer too long in one place
  • Always direct the hot air away from the client’s scalp to prevent scalp burns
  • Direct it from the scalp towards the ends

Hot air flows in the direction in which the hair is wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Add to the side bar on Page 468:
  • Start drying at the bottom in nape area
  • Drying order:
      • Scalp
      • Hair shaft
      • Ends

Thermal Hairstyling

  • Q. Who invented marcel waving in 1875?
  • Add this to side bar
  • Thermal waving/marcel waving and thermal curling are methods of waving and curling straight or pressed hair using thermal irons and special manipulative techniques on dry hair

a. Marcel Grateau


Electrical or stove-heated

  • Manipulative techniques/same for both irons
  • Thermal Irons
  • Irons made of quality steel
  • Even heat controlled by stylist
  • Non-electrical favored by stylists catering to clients with excessive curly hair
  • Larger range of barrel or rod size
  • Higher heat capabilities



Two parts to know:

  • Barrel or rod and Shell (spoon)
  • Flat Irons
  • Straight edges
  • Creates smooth, straight styles
  • Beveled edge-bends the ends
  • Improving-constant even heat even on high settings
  • Ergonomic grips/lightweight


Testing Thermal Irons

  • After heating, test on tissue paper
  • Hold for 5 seconds
  • If scorches, iron is too hot
  • Let cool before placing in hair
  • Overly hot will scorch hair off/discolor white hair
  • Fine, lightened, or damaged=less heat

Care of Thermal Irons

  • Remove dirt, oils, and product residue
  • Dampen towel with soapy solution and a few drops of ammonia (or prepared cleaners)
  • Wipe barrel
  • Non-electrical irons, immerse in solution
  • Do not clean while turned on or still cooling

Comb Used With Thermal Irons

  • Use hard rubber or other nonflammable substance
  • Have fine teeth to firmly hold the hair
  • Manipulating Thermal Irons
  • Hold iron in a comfortable position that gives you complete control


  • Setting depends on texture of the hair
  • Fine hair, lightened or tinted, or white hair use gentle heat (warm not hot)
  • Coarse and gray hair-use more heat (hotter)

Thermal Curling with Electric Thermal Irons

  • Straight hair-permits quick styling
  • Pressed hair-permits styling without danger of returning to its former extremely curly condition
  • Wigs and hairpieces-presents a quick and effective method of styling

Curling Iron Manipulations

  • Method of holding the iron is a matter of personal preference
  • Choose one-greatest ease, comfort, and control of movement
  • Practice opening and closing at regular intervals
  • Practice releasing the hair with quick, clicking movements

3. Practice guiding the strand to the center of the curl

  • 4. Use the comb to protect the client’s scalp from burns
  • Other Types of Curls
  • Spiral curl-curling the hair while winding the strand around the rod
  • End curls-for short hair


Volume Thermal Curls

  • Used to create volume or lift
  • Volume-based thermal curls-maximum lift or volume
  • -curl is very high on base (135 degree angle)
  • Add: over-directed

Full-Based Thermal Curls

  • Full volume
  • -125 degree (over-directed)
  • Half-based
  • -moderate lift or volume
  • -90 degree angle
  • Off-based
  • -slight lift or volume 70 degrees
  • Finished set-clip each curl in place until ready for styling

Safety Measures (3 needed for test)

  • Use only after instructions
  • Keep irons clean
  • Do not overheat irons
  • Test temperature on tissue paper
  • Avoid burning yourself or client
  • Place in a safe place to cool
  • Heating conventional irons do not put handle too close to the heater

Be sure iron is properly balanced in heater

  • Use hard rubber or non flammable combs
  • Celluloid combs must not be used- flammable
  • Do not use metal combs/too hot/burn scalp
  • Place comb between scalp and iron/prevent burns
  • Hair must be cleaned and completely dry
  • Do not allow ends to protrude over iron/fishhooks
  • Lightened, tinted, or relaxed hair-use gentle heat

Thermal Hair Straightening (Pressing)

  • Temporarily straightens extremely curly or unruly hair with a heated comb
  • Three types: On test!!!!
  • Soft
  • -removes up to 50-60% of curl
  • -once on each side
  • Add -no pressure


Medium press

  • -removes up to 60-75% of curl
  • -once on each side
  • -with some pressure
  • Hard press
  • -removes 100% of curl
  • -twice on each side
  • Add -with pressure
          • Also called double press


Read: Caution box /uploads/20...


Analysis of Hair and Scalp

  • Before press, analyze condition of hair and scalp
  • If not healthy-give appropriate corrective treatments
  • If scalp skin disease-advise client to see a dermatologist
  • If hair shows signs of neglect-recommend a series of conditioning treatments

Failure to correct dry and brittle hair-results in breakage during hair pressing

  • Burned hair strands cannot be conditioned
  • Check hair for elasticity and porosity
  • Good elasticity-stretches about 50% (when wet) of original length before breaking

Analysis covers:

  • Wave pattern
  • Length
  • Texture (coarse, medium, fine)
  • Feel (wiry, soft, or silky)
  • Elasticity
  • Color
  • Condition
  • Condition of scalp

Read lists


Hair Texture

  • Coarse, extremely curly hair has qualities that make it difficult to press
  • Coarse-greater in diameter
  • Requires more heat and pressure
  • Medium curly-no special problems
  • -least resistant to hair pressing

Fine hair requires special care

  • -less heat and pressure
  • Wiry, curly hair may be coarse, medium, or fine, and feels stiff, hard and glassy
  • -very resistant to pressing
  • -use more heat and pressure

Scalp Condition

  • Classified as normal, tight, or flexible
  • Normal-proceed with analysis
  • If scalp is tight and hair coarse-press the hair in the direction it grows
  • Flexible scalp-difficulty-may not be able to press the hair satisfactorily

Record Keeping

  • Keep a record of the hair and scalp analysis
  • Include all pressing treatments
  • Question client about lightener, tint, gradual color (metallic), or other chemical treatments
  • Release statement (may not hold up in Pennsylvania)

Conditioning Treatments

  • Involve special cosmetic preparations for the hair and scalp, thorough brushing, and scalp massage
  • Usually results in better hair pressing
  • Pressing Combs
  • Two types-regular and electric
  • Constructed of good quality stainless steel or brass
  • Handle is made of wood/does not absorb heat



To temper a new pressing comb-

  • -heat the comb until extremely hot
  • -coat the comb in petroleum or pressing oil
  • -let cool down naturally
  • -run under hot water to remove the oil

Heating the Comb

  • After heating the comb, test it on a piece of light tissue paper (end wraps or sanex strip)
  • If paper scorches, allow comb to cool slightly before applying it to the hair

Cleaning the Comb

  • Will perform more efficiently if kept clean
  • Clean of loose hair, grease, and dust before and after each use
  • Intense heat keeps the comb sterile
  • To remove carbon-rub the outside surface and between teeth with a fine steel wool pad or fine sandpaper
  • Place metal portion in hot baking soda solution for 1 hour; rinse and dry

Pressing Oil or Cream

  • First apply pressing oil to hair
  • Products have these effects:
  • Makes hair softer
  • Prepare and condition the hair for pressing
  • Helps prevent the hair from burning or scorching
  • Helps prevent hair breakage
  • Condition the hair after pressing
  • Add sheen to pressed hair
  • Helps hair stay pressed longer


Reminders and Hints for All Pressing

  • (need 3 for test)
  • Good judgment=avoid damage
  • Client’s safety is ensured only when stylist observes every precaution
  • Avoid excessive heat or pressure
  • Avoid too much pressing oil
  • Avoid perfumed pressing oil-allergic
  • Avoid over frequently hair pressing
  • Keep comb clean at all times

Avoid overheating

  • Test temperature on paper before applying to hair
  • Adjust temperature to the texture and condition of the hair
  • Use comb carefully to avoid burning the scalp, skin, and hair
  • Prevent smoking and burning by drying the hair completely
  • Avoid excessive application of pressing oil

Use moderately warm comb to press short hair at temples and back of neck

  • Hard Press
  • Only recommended when the results of a soft press are not satisfactory
  • Touch-ups
  • Process is the same-with shampoo omitted

Caution Box

  • Two types of injuries:
  • Immediate
  • -burned hair that breaks off
  • -burned scalp causing temporary or permanent loss of hair
  • -burns on ears and neck that form scars

2. Not immediately evident

-skin rash if allergic to pressing oil

-breaking or shortening of the hair due to many frequent hair pressings


Special Considerations

  • Pressing fine hair
  • -less pressure
  • Add -less heat
  • Pressing short, fine hair
  • -extra care at hairline
  • -extra short. Comb should not be too hot
  • -comb causes accidental burns/painful/scars

Immediately apply 1percent gentian violet jelly to the burn

  • Pressing coarse hair
  • -apply enough pressure so hair stays straightened
  • Pressing tinted, lightened, or gray hair
  • -might require conditioning treatments
  • -gray hair can be particularly resistant
  • -moderately heated comb, light pressure
  • -avoid excessive heat/discoloration/breakage

Styling Long Hair

  • Updo-hairstyle with the hair arranged up and off the shoulders
  • Secured with implements like hairpins, bobby pins, and elastics
  • Special occasions





Knot or Chignon

-true classic/popular for centuries

-created from simple ponytail

-dressed up with flowers or ornaments,or kept simple

-very straight and silky hair-set on hot rollers

-wavy or curly, blow-dry straight

-extremely curly-press first or leave for a textured-looking chignon



Basic French twist (not in textbook)

-elegant, sleek look can go anywhere

-straight, fine hair set first

***All hair is in the twist

***Level 1’s set on wet set rollers first, then comb- out

***review pinning on page 501



Pleat or Classic French twist

-for weddings and black-tie events

-shape is larger

-front is designed/more creative than basic twist

-inspect shape from every angle/well balanced and well proportioned

***Level 2’s set hot rollers, then comb-out, designing the front and sides

***Level 3’s no set required/ design the front/sides



Client Consultation

  • Make sure you understand what the client has in mind
  • Pre-bridal, come in with hairpiece to try several styles
  • Take photographs to help decide which she likes best
  • Keep the photo to duplicate style on her big day

Artistry of Hairstyling

  • Master basic styles
  • Create your own unique and attractive looks
  • Styling trends change quickly
  • Have a mannequin at home---Practice
  • Create looks in magazines-try new ideas and techniques
  • Every client presents creative possibilities