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North Carolina Corn Insect Pest 2014 Update. Dominic Reisig NCSU Entomology. Contents of This Presentation. Refuge compliance Does corn earworm impact corn yield? Cry1F-resistant fall armyworm Seed treatment value for NC corn Resistance development of corn earworm to Bt

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north carolina corn insect pest 2014 update

North Carolina Corn Insect Pest 2014 Update

Dominic Reisig NCSU Entomology

contents of this presentation
Contents of This Presentation
  • Refuge compliance
  • Does corn earworm impact corn yield?
  • Cry1F-resistant fall armyworm
  • Seed treatment value for NC corn
  • Resistance development of corn earworm to Bt
  • Stink bug management in corn

Research Issues Not in This Presentation

slide3

Traits of Selected, Commercially Available Bt Corn Products

* Non-Bt Refuge in Bag Slide adapted from Scott Stewart, U. Tennessee

slide4

Relative Efficacy of Selected, Commercially Available Bt Corn Products

* Unless Cry1F-resistant fall armyworm is present Slide adapted from Scott Stewart, U. Tennessee

slide5

Refuge Requirements (Southern US) of Selected, Commercially Available Bt Corn Products

* Non-Bt Refuge in Bag Slide adapted from Scott Stewart, U. Tennessee

why refuge
Why refuge?

Slide adapted from Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Colorado State University

example refuge configurations
Example Refuge Configurations

Image adapted from Canadian Corn Pest Coalition

common refuge questions
Common Refuge Questions
  • Can the refuge be protected from lep. pests?
    • Yes, using non-Bt insecticides
  • How should the refuge hybrid be selected?
    • Chose a hybrid with a similar maturity and plant it as close in time as possible to the Bt hybrid
  • What happens to those who don’t plant refuge?
    • Required by law through EPA
    • Contract occurs at time of purchase of Bt hybrid
    • Warning letter on first offense, with compliance assessment the following year
    • No Bt corn after second offense (in consecutive year)
common refuge questions1
Common Refuge Questions
  • Who checks for compliance
    • Independent third parties
      • Telephone survey, on-farm visits
  • Are seed purchases tracked?
    • Of course, but companies don’t share information
  • How can I know the refuge requirement?
    • Check the bag tag
    • Online search “refuge calculator”
      • Yes, there is an app for that- iPhone and Android…
slide10

Common mid-

to late-season lep. pest

Occasional mid-

to late-season lep. pests

Southern cornstalk borer

Cutworm

Corn earworm

Armyworms

European corn borer

corn earworm control with bt hybrids
Corn earworm control with Bt hybrids

No control

Poor-fair control

Herculex I

Herculex XTRA

  • Agrisure RW
  • Herculex RW
  • YieldGard Rootworm
  • YieldGard VT Rootworm/RR2

Very good

Fair-good

  • YieldGard VT2 Pro
  • YieldGard VT Triple Pro
  • SmartStax
  • Agrisure CB/LL
  • YieldGard Corn Borer
  • Agrisure CB/LL/RW
  • Agrisure GT3000
  • YieldGard Plus
  • YieldGard VT Triple

Excellent

  • Agrisure Viptera

Slide from F.P.F. Reay-Jones, Clemson U.

slide12

To date, I have not documented a single yield loss due to corn earworm feeding in the ear in North Carolina

Does corn earworm impact yield?

slide14

Does Corn Earworm Affect Yield?

  • Plots of 14 rows x 50 ft planted in Florence, SC, and in Plymouth, NC (n = 4 replications).
  • Near-isolines for Bt and non-Bt hybrids (HX1; HX1 + YGCB; VT3; VT2Pro).
  • Applications of Prevathon (20 oz/ac) twice a week (15 applications in Florence, 18 applications in Plymouth) using a backpack sprayer.
    • Created treated and untreated subplots
  • Sampled 20 ears per plot for corn earworm injury and yield
area of kernels injured by earworm in 2012
Area of Kernels Injured by Earworm in 2012

Florence, SC

Plymouth, NC

= hybrids shared same genetic background

area of kernels injured by earworm in 2013
Area of Kernels Injured by Earworm in 2013

Florence, SC

Plymouth, NC

= hybrids shared same genetic background

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Corn earworm did not affect yield (NC or SC)
  • Hybrids should be chosen based on other agronomic considerations than earworm
  • Bt is probably still necessary for stalk pests (southern cornstalk borer & European corn borer)
  • Some of these genes active against corn earworm also have activity on other pests
    • May have fit for late-planted corn
    • Aflatoxin level may be reduced by eliminating earworm, but effect is highly dependent on hybrid genetics and environment

armyworm

slide19

Non-Bt

Fit only for cattle, will

not accept above this level

Safe for

any use

what adjustments should we make in 2014
What adjustments should we make in 2014?
  • Hybrids with Genuity SmartStax, Herculex and Optimum Intrasect contain Cry1F
    • Widestrikecountains Cry1F + Cry1Ac
  • Closely monitor corn and cotton for resistance
    • August
  • Plant refuge
  • Plant refuge
  • Plant refuge