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Oil from ISS and HICO. 4 May 2010. 7 May 2010. Oil from MODIS- Terra and Aqua. Coast from the ER-2 AVIRIS and DCS. Eastern edge of Atchafalaya Bay to Terrebonne, Louisiana – 10 May 2010. State of the Program: NASA Ocean Biology & Biogeochemistry. Paula Bontempi and Fred Lipschultz

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Oil from ISS and HICO

4 May 2010

7 May 2010


Coast from the ER-2 AVIRIS and DCS

Eastern edge of Atchafalaya Bay to Terrebonne, Louisiana – 10 May 2010


State of the Program: NASA Ocean Biology & Biogeochemistry

Paula Bontempi and Fred Lipschultz

NASA Headquarters

Ocean Color Research Team Meeting

11 May 2010

nasa earth science division budget marks fy11 submit
NASA Earth Science Division BUDGET MARKS: FY11 Submit

FY11 President’s Budget


FY10 President’s Budget

Previous Administration



FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 TOTAL

BASE 1495 1544 1589 1617 1632 7877

OCO-2 171 91 51 13 4 330

CLIMATE 150 309 449 587 646 2141


CLIMATE/FLIGHT 100 234 359 477 521 1691

CLIMATE/Non-FL. 50 75 90 110 125 450


President’s FY11 NASA Budget Request:

Earth Science Plan

  • Present infusion enables significant mission accelerations and program expansions
    • FY09 Stimulus + FY10 President’s budget increase for Earth Science provided a realistic
    • basis for the Foundational Missions
    • All Foundational missions launched by mid-CY2013 (Glory, Aquarius, NPP, LDCM, GPM)
    • Build on existing balanced program (non-flight as well as flight)
  • Enables OCO-2 development and launch by 2/2013
  • Accelerates selected Decadal Survey systematic missions
    • Launches all 4 Tier-1 missions between 2104 and 2017
      • SMAP: 11/2014; ICESAT-2: 10/2015 DESDynI*: 2017; CLARREO-1*: 2017
  • Expands and accelerates Venture-class competitive, PI-led program
    • ANNUAL solicitations for major flight instruments PLUS biannual alternating
    • airborne and small-mission solicitations
      • First small-sat selections in 2012
      • Develops Common Instrument Interface, encouraging flight on ISS, international
    • partner missions, private/commercial missions
    • *Constrained, focused refined mission
    • (continued)

President’s FY11 NASA Budget Request:

Earth Science Plan (cont.)

  • Develops selected Climate Continuity Missions
    • SAGE-III refurbishment/hexapod development, ready for flight to ISS late CY2013
    • GRACE-C (GRACE Follow-on), launch late CY2015 (joint with DLR)
    • Potential additional measurements possible – identified in concert with USGCRP
  • Enables Key Non-Flight activities
    • Multi-year carbon monitoring pilot program
    • Expanded Earth Science-specific technology program
    • SERVIR expansion
    • Expanded modeling, synthesis, computing capability
    • NASA substantial support/participation in National Assessment activities
    • Geodetic ground network expansion/modernization
    • Expanded NASA support for GLOBE
  • With US Global Change Research Program, identifies and enables additional selected
  • Tier-2 Decadal Survey missions to be developed for flight in 2019-2020 time frame


  • GLORY (11/2010)
  • Aquarius (12/2010) (with CONAE)
  • NPP (NET 9/2011) (with Interagency partners)
  • LDCM (12/2012) (agency external commitment 6/2013) (with USGS, TIRS capability)
  • OCO-2 (2/2013)
  • GPM Core (7/2013) (with JAXA)
  • SAGE-III on ISS (11/2013) (launch required and not in budget, includes hexapod)
  • SMAP (11/2014) (date set by LV selection issues, SRB’s recommendation for Phase C-D)
  • ICESAT-2 (10/2015) (date constrained by technical development)
  • GRACE-C (12/2015) (possibly with DLR)
  • CLARREO-1 (10/2017) (cost-constrained mission)
  • DESDynI RADAR+LIDAR (10/2017) (possibly with DLR, partnership not essential)
  • Additional missions possible for launch prior to 2020, identified in concert with USGCRP
  • Annual Venture major instrument solicitations starting in FY12
  • First small-sat Venture mission call in FY12

NASA’s Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Research





NASA CVO: IOPs, AOPs, Protocols, Instrumentation, RRs

New Measurements/ DS Missions/Venture Class/Suborbital

International Partnerships:

Unrestricted data availability/use;

Sharing of in situ Cal/Val data;

Ship time; Models

Time Series,

Vicarious Cal,

Data Product Val, Field Campaigns


Aeronet - OC)


Processes from

Space & MAP





Carbon Cycle, Ecosystems Research


Earth’s Living Ocean: Future Ocean Biology and Chemistry From Space – Advance Plan of 2007

1. How are ocean ecosystems and the biodiversity they support influenced by climate and environmental variability and change, and how will these changes occur over time?

2. How do carbon and other elements transition between ocean pools and pass through the Earth System, and how do biogeochemical fluxes impact the ocean and Earth's climate over time?

3. How (and why) is the diversity and geographical distribution of coastal marine habitats changing, and what are the implications for the well-being of human society?

4. How do hazards and pollutants impact the hydrography and biology of the coastal zone? How do they affect us, and can we mitigate their effects?

Biogeochemical Oceanographic Properties: Organic and inorganic particle abundance and size; Plant species-specific bio- and chemical markers (e.g., calcite); Carbon species; Export carbon; Photosynthesis; Coastal processes; Land-ocean carbon transport; Air-sea interaction

Biological Oceanographic Properties: Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton (plant) biomass; Plant physiology/growth rates; Harmful algal blooms; Plant functional groups (nitrogen fixers, carbon exporters, calcium carbonate, microbial loop); Ecosystems and habitat health; Climate-biology interactions


NASA OB&B Research – ROSES 2009

  • NOPP 2009 (up to $2.5M/yr with NSF and ONR) on Sensors for Marine Ecosystems
  • ROSES 2009 - Release Date 13 February 2009
    • Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry and Cryospheric Sciences (~$5.0 M/yr)
      • Beaufort and Chukchi Seas Field work, Data Synthesis, MAP – 4 yr program
    • Interdisciplinary Science (five topics) up to 3 yrs (~$10M/yr; selected $11M/yr)
      • Landscapes to Coasts, Impacts of Melting Ice, Biomass Burning, Disturbance, Sea Level Rise
    • ESSP Venture-Class Science Investigations: Earth Venture-1: Five studies, five years, ~$30M/yr) – Decisions May/June 2010
      • Interdisciplinary studies of the Earth System using Suborbital assets
    • A.41The Science of Terra and Aqua (five topics) up to 3 yrs (~$15M/yr) – 325 proposals – Decisions sometime September 2010
      • Multi platform and sensor data fusion – 74 (95)
      • Science Data Analysis – 184 (163)
      • Algorithms – New Data Products - 28
      • Algorithms – Existing Data Product Refinement - 31
      • Near- or Near-Real-Time Data Algorithms - 8
      • Focus on Measurement Teams and not Sensor Science Teams

NASA OB&B Research – ROSES 2009 & 2010

  • ROSES 2009 - Release Date 13 February 2009
    • A.24 Remote Sensing Theory (~$1.5 M/yr) – 142 NOIs [30 April 2010]
      • Theoretical algorithm advances: research to develop fundamental advances to radiative transfer theory and calculations.
      • Data "fusion": research to develop new approaches for integrative analysis of disparate data sets.
      • Advanced corrections: research to develop improved approaches and/or algorithms for correcting satellite data in order to take into account known confounding effects.
  • ROSES 2010 - Release Date 12 February 2010
    • A.32 Earth System Data Records Uncertainty Analysis – (~$6M) [30 April 2010]

NASA OB&B Research – ROSES 2010

  • ROSES 2010 - Release Date 12 February 2010
    • A.24 NPP Science Team – (~$6.0 M/yr) 47 NOIs [14 May 2010] – three topics
      • 2.1 Evaluation of EDRs: new and successor investigations to continue the evaluation of NPP/NPOESS Environmental Data Records to demonstrate the suitability of these data sets for use as ESDRs and/or CDRs, to develop/evaluate improvements to EDR algorithms that could make them more suitable as ESDRs or CDRs
        • 2.1.1 Proposals Focused on Particular Data Products of Suites of Data Products
        • a) Vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and moisture
        • b) Atmospheric particulates—aerosols and clouds
        • c) Ocean biological and biogeochemical properties and related variables; sea surface temperature; and sea ice
        • d) Vegetation biophysical measurements, land cover, and related land surface properties
        • e) Ozone total column and vertical profile and other atmospheric constituents
        • f) Solar and infrared radiative fluxes at the surface and top of the atmosphere
        • 2.1.2 Calibration and Validation
      • 2.2 Development of New Approaches to Extend Critical Earth System Data Records that Cannot be Produced by NPP - New investigations to develop scientific approaches for continuing key ESDRs begun by Earth Observing System (EOS) that cannot be continued by NPP/NPOESS due to either omission from initial plans for
      • NPP/NPOESS or known performance limitations of the instruments

NASA OB&B Research – ROSES 2010

  • ROSES 2010 - Release Date 12 February 2010
    • A.24 NPP Science Team – (~$6.0 M/yr) 122 NOIs [14 May 2010] – three topics
      • 2.3 Development and Demonstration of Innovative and Practical Applications -New investigations to develop and demonstrate innovative and practical applications of NPP data.
    • A.5 Carbon Cycle Science – (~ NASA: $7.5 M/yr; USDA: $1.67 M/yr) - 163 NOIs 25-30 ocean related) [4 June 2010]
      • Interactions between land management and land change, and the carbon cycle (NASA, USDA)
      • Ocean acidification (NASA)
      • Advancing the scientific basis for space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide and/or methane (NASA)
      • Adaptation, mitigation, and vulnerability within the Earth system (land, ocean, and atmosphere) (NASA, USDA)
      • Synthetic and integrative research to advance the carbon-related goals of ongoing research activities under the U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and the carbon-related goals and objectives of related national and international programs (NASA, USDA)

NASA OB&B Research – ROSES 2010

  • ROSES 2010
    • A.24 Enhancing the Capability of Computational Earth System Models and NASA Data for Operation and Assessment (with Tsdengdar Lee, HEC; up to $3M/yr, 2 year awards) [17 September 2010]
      • 2.1 Accelerating Operational Use of Research Data –
        • 2.1.1 Operational Short-term Weather Predictions
        • 2.1.2 Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation
      • 2.2 Data for IPCC Climate Projection Assessment ($1M/yr) – coupled carbon and climate
      • 2.3 Computational Climate Modeling

NASA OB&B Research

  • ROSES 2011
    • Field Campaign ? SE Asia pushed to 2011/2012?
      • Data product validation
      • Joint ocean-atmosphere retrievals
      • Air/Sea greenhouse and other gas fluxes
      • Acid deposition/coastal acidification
    • Focus on ocean ecology/biological oceanography (non-carbon chemistry)
      • * Earmark for Carbon product pilots
a new u s carbon cycle science plan

A New U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan

Anna Michalak1, Gregg Marland2, Rob Jackson3, Chris Sabine4CCS WG Co-Leads

1 The University of Michigan

2 Oak Ridge National Laboratory

3 Duke University


(USGCRP CCIWG Fall 2008- tentative May 2010)

fundamental science questions
Fundamental Science Questions

1999 U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan:

What has happened to the carbon dioxide that has already been emitted by human activities (past anthropogenic CO2)?

What will be the future atmospheric CO2 concentration trajectory resulting from both past and future emissions?

Current version for new Plan:

How do natural processes and human actions affect the carbon cycle, on land, in the atmosphere, and in the oceans?

How do policy and management decisions affect the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane?

How are ecosystems, species, and resources impacted by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, the associated changes in climate, and carbon management decisions?

ceos and ioccg
  • Focus on international collaboration (ESA, ISRO, JAXA, etc).
  • Co-lead for Ocean Color Radiometry Virtual Constellation
  • Formulation of INSITU-OCR – NASA program office
    • Aeronet-OC
  • Lead for IOCCG Level-1 requirements working group
satellite data from calibrated sensors 2010
Satellite Data from Calibrated Sensors(2010)
  • Calibration Strategy
  • Prelaunch
    • Lab. characterization & calibration (SI-traceable)
    • Solar calibration(transfer-to-orbit)
  • Postlaunch (operational adjustments)
    • Solar calibration (daily)
    • Lunar calibration (monthly)
    • Multiple sites Lwn time series for vicarious calibration – (ISRO Arabian Sea Kavaratti; NOAA’s MOBY-C)
  • Mission Feedback
  • Science community input (ESA CCI)
  • Comparison with other appropriate products
  • New Missions (Sentinel 3 OLCI, OCM-2)
  • Protocol development


  • Improved Products & Algorithms
  • Reprocessing due to improvements in calibration, masks, binning schemes, product compatibilities, etc. (ESA CCI; ISRO-NASA-NOAA JST)
  • New products from bio-geochemical fields, atmospheric fields, etc.
  • Data distribution interface



  • In Situ Data
  • Collection of required bio-optical and atmospheric measurements (INSITU-OCR PIs; ESA Aero. N. Africa)
  • in situ instrument calibration (Project round robin SI-traceable, IOPs, AOPs; ESA Radiance Project)
  • Data collection following NASA Ocean Optics protocols (ISRO Kavaratti)
  • Archive of calibrated QC in situ data (NASA SeaBASS)
  • Calibrated instrument pool
  • Develop new instrumentation
  • Product & Algorithm Validation
  • Atmospheric & bio-optical algorithm validation and development (INSITU-OCR PIs , office staff, ESA CCI OC)
  • Match-up analysis via Aeronet-OC sites, satellite QC, time series evaluation, Bio-Argo , ChloroGIN, etc.
  • Earth System/Climate Model data assimilation
  • Satellite data processing software (ACE, OCM-2, MERIS, OLCI, SGLI, GOCI, …..)
ceos and ioccg24
  • Focus on international collaboration (ESA, ISRO, JAXA, etc).
  • Co-lead for Ocean Color Radiometry Virtual Constellation
  • Formulation of INSITU-OCR – NASA program office
    • Aeronet-OC
  • Lead for IOCCG Level-1 requirements working group
programmatic challenges for nasa
Programmatic Challenges for NASA
  • Costing and Obligation – 566K cut to OB&B as of last week
    • Carryover of funds from one fiscal year to next
  • NPOESS is now the Joint Polar Satellite System
  • Role of ocean biology and chemistry (color) in climate and Earth system science – SSB/OSB NRC report underway
  • Age of the sensor fleet, global climate capability of other sensors
  • Continuity of EOS observations / missions
    • International data access/science team membership
  • Timing of new observations given future desires for cap and trade