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The Divisive Politics of Slavery. SECTION 1. SECTION 2. The Civil War Begins. The North Takes Charge. SECTION 3. Reconstruction and Its Effects. SECTION 4. The Union in Peril. Chapter Summary.

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slide1

The Divisive Politics of Slavery

SECTION 1

SECTION 2

The Civil War Begins

The North Takes Charge

SECTION 3

Reconstruction and Its Effects

SECTION 4

The Union in Peril

Chapter Summary

Slavery divides the nation. North and South enter a long and destructive civil war that ends slavery. African Americans briefly enjoy full civil rights, but new laws discriminate against them.

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slide2

Section 1

The Divisive Politics

of Slavery

Disagreements over slavery heighten regional tensions and leads to the breakup of the Union.

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slide3

SECTION

1

The Divisive Politics of Slavery

Differences Between North and South

Controversy over Slavery Worsens

• Southern plantation economy relies on enslaved labor

• Industrialized North does not depend on slavery

• South tries to spread slavery in West

• North’s opposition to slavery intensifies, tries to stop its spread

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SECTION

1

Slavery in the Territories

Statehood for California

• California applies for statehood as free state in 1849; angers South

The Compromise of 1850

• Slave state Texas claims eastern half of New Mexico Territory

• Southern states threaten secession—withdrawal from Union

• Compromise of 1850 has provisions for both sides

• California becomes free state; tougher fugitive slave law enacted

• Popular sovereignty, or vote, decides slavery issue in NM, Utah

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SECTION

1

Protest, Resistance, and Violence

Fugitive Slave Act

• Slaves denied trial by jury; helpers fined and imprisoned

• Northerners defy Act, help send slaves to safety in Canada

The Underground Railroad

• Abolitionists develop Underground Railroad—escape routes from South

• Harriet Tubman is conductor on 19 trips to free African Americans

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

• Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe increases protests

Continued . . .

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SECTION

1

continuedProtest, Resistance, and Violence

Tension in Kansas and Nebraska

• Kansas, Nebraska territories north of 3630’ line, closed to slavery

• 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act allows popular sovereignty on slavery

“Bleeding Kansas”

• Proslavery settlers from Missouri cross border to vote in Kansas

• Fraudulent victory leads to violent struggle over slavery in Kansas

  • Violence in the Senate
  • • Charles Sumner verbally attacks slavery, singles out Andrew Butler
  • Preston S. Brooks, Butler’s nephew, assaults Sumner on Senate floor

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SECTION

1

New Political Parties Emerge

  • Slavery Divides Whigs
  • Democrat Franklin Pierce elected president in 1852
  • Northern, Southern Whigs split over slavery in territories
  • Nativist Know-Nothings also split by region over slavery
  • The Free-Soilers’ Voice
  • Free-Soilers fear slavery will drive down wages of white workers
  • The New Republican Party
  • Republican Party forms in 1854; oppose slavery in territories
  • Democrat James Buchanan elected president (1856); secession averted

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SECTION

1

Conflicts Lead to Secession

  • The Dred Scott Decision
  • • Dred Scott, a slave taken to free territory by owner, claims freedom
  • Supreme Court denies appeal; Scott has no legal rights, not a citizen
  • North angry; South reads ruling as guaranteed extension of slavery
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • 1858 Senate race between Senator Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln
  • Douglas wants popular sovereignty to decide if state is free or slave
  • Lincoln considers slavery immoral; wants constitutional amendment

Continued . . .

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slide9

SECTION

1

continuedConflicts Lead to Secession

  • Harper’s Ferry
  • John Brown leads group to arsenal to start slave uprising (1859)
  • Troops put down rebellion; Brown is tried, executed
  • Lincoln Is Elected President
  • 1860, Lincoln beats 3 candidates, wins no southern electoral votes
  • Southern Secession
  • 7 states secede after Lincoln’s victory; form Confederacy in 1861
  • Former senator Jefferson Davis elected president of Confederacy

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Section 2

The Civil War Begins

Shortly after the nation’s Southern states secede from the Union, war begins between the North and South.

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SECTION

2

The Civil War Begins

Union and Confederate Forces Clash

  • Southern States Take Sides
  • 1861, Fort Sumter in Charleston falls; Lincoln calls for volunteers
  • 4 more slave states join Confederacy
  • Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri remain in Union
  • Strengths and Strategies
  • Northern strengths: more people, factories, food production
  • Southern strengths: cotton, good generals, motivated soldiers
  • Union plan: blockade ports, split South in two, capture Richmond

Continued . . .

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SECTION

2

continuedUnion and Confederate Forces Clash

  • Bull Run
  • • Bull Run—first battle, near Washington; Confederate victory
  • Thomas J. Jackson called Stonewall Jackson for firm stand in battle
  • Union Armies in the West
  • • Ulysses S. Grant pushes south; captures forts, wins at Shiloh
  • David G. Farragut takes New Orleans, the Confederacy’s busiest port

Continued . . .

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slide13

SECTION

2

continuedUnion and Confederate Forces Clash

  • The War for the Capitals
  • • Robert E. Lee takes command of Confederate Army in 1862:
  • - drives General George McClellan from Richmond
  • - loses at Antietam, bloodiest one-day battle
  • McClellan removed from command, lets battered Confederates withdraw

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SECTION

2

The Politics of War

Britain Remains Neutral

• Britain does not need cotton, does need Northern goods

Proclaiming Emancipation

• Emancipation Proclamation empowers army to free Confederate slaves

• Gives soldiers moral purpose; compromise no longer possible

Both Sides Face Political Dissent

• Lincoln, Davis suspend habeas corpus to suppress disloyalty, dissent

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SECTION

2

Life During Wartime

War Leads to Social Upheaval

• Casualties, desertions lead to conscription on both sides

• Conscription—draft that forces men to enlist; leads to draft riots

African Americans Fight for Freedom

• African Americans are 1% of North’s population, 10% of army

• Serve in separate regiments, paid less than whites for most of war

Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides

• Soldiers often sick from camp filth, limited diet, poor medical care

• Prisons overcrowded, unsanitary; many die of malnutrition, disease

Continued . . .

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slide16

SECTION

2

continuedLife During Wartime

  • Women Work to Improve Conditions
  • Thousands of women serve as nurses for both sides
  • Union nurse Clara Barton later founds American Red Cross
  • The War Affects Regional Economies
  • Confederacy faces food shortage, increased prices, inflation
  • Union army’s need for supplies supports Northern industry
  • North’s standard of living declines
  • Congress enacts income tax (percentage of income) to pay for war

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slide17

Section 3

The North Takes Charge

After four years of bloody fighting, the Union wears down the Confederacy and wins the war.

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slide18

SECTION

3

The North Takes Charge

The Tide Turns

  • Southern Victories
  • December 1862, Fredericksburg; May 1863, Chancellorsville
  • The Battle of Gettysburg
  • North wins decisive three-day battle of Gettysburg, July 1863
  • Total casualties were more than 30%; South demoralized
  • The Gettysburg Address
  • Nov. 1863, Lincoln gives Gettysburg Addressat cemetery dedication
  • Speech helps country realize it is a unified nation

Continued . . .

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SECTION

3

continuedThe Tide Turns

  • Grant Wins at Vicksburg
  • May-July 1863, Grant sieges Vicksburg after unsuccessful attacks

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SECTION

3

The Confederacy Wears Down

  • Confederates Seek Peace
  • Confederacy no longer able to attack; works toward armistice
  • Southern newspapers, legislators, public call for peace
  • Total War
  • Lincoln appoints Grant commander of all Union Armies (1864)
  • Grant appoints William Tecumseh ShermanasWestern commander
  • Grant, Sherman wage total war to destroy South’s will to fight
  • Grant’s strategy to decimate Lee’s army while Sherman raids Georgia

Continued . . .

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SECTION

3

continuedThe Confederacy Wears Down

  • Sherman’s March
  • Spring 1864, Sherman creates a path of destruction through Georgia
  • The Election of 1864
  • Lincoln’s unexpected reelection helped by Sherman’s victories
  • The Surrender at Appomatox
  • April 1865, Grant, Lee sign surrender at Appomatox Court House
  • Within a month, all remaining Confederate resistance collapses

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SECTION

3

The War Changes the Nation

  • Human Cost of the War
  • Approximately 360,000 Union and 260,000 Confederate soldiers die
  • Political and Economic Changes
  • Civil War increases power, authority of federal government
  • Southern economy shattered: industry, farmlands destroyed
  • A Revolution in Warfare
  • Developments in military technology make fighting more deadly
  • Ironclad ships change naval warfare

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SECTION

3

The War Changes Lives

The Thirteenth Amendment

• Thirteenth Amendment bans slavery in all states

  • Lincoln Is Assassinated
  • April 14, 1865, Lincoln is shot at Ford’s Theater
  • Assassin John Wilkes Booth escapes, trapped by Union cavalry, shot
  • 7 million people pay respects to Lincoln’s funeral train

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slide24

Section 4

Reconstruction and

Its Effects

After the Civil War, the nation embarks on a period known as Reconstruction, during which attempts are made to readmit the South to the Union.

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SECTION

4

Reconstruction and Its Effects

The Politics of Reconstruction

Building a New South

• Freedmen’s Bureau provides social services, medical care, education

• Reconstruction—U.S. rebuilds, readmits South into Union (1865–1877)

Lincoln’s Plan

• State readmitted if 10% of 1860 voters swear allegiance to Union

• Radical Republicans consider plan too lenient:

- want to destroy political power of former slaveholders

- want full citizenship and suffrage for African Americans

Continued . . .

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slide26

SECTION

4

continuedThe Politics of Reconstruction

  • Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction
  • • Andrew Johnson, Lincoln’s successor, forms own plan
  • • Excludes Confederate leaders, wealthy landowners
  • • Congress rejects new Southern governments, congressmen
  • Moderate Republicans pushed for new laws to remedy weaknesses they saw in Johnson’s plan

Continued . . .

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slide27

SECTION

4

continuedThe Politics of Reconstruction

Congressional Reconstruction

• Congress passes Civil Rights Act, Freedmen’s Bureau Act (1866)

• Fourteenth Amendment grants full citizenship to African Americans

• Reconstruction Act of 1867 divides Confederacy into districts

Continued . . .

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slide28

SECTION

4

continuedThe Politics of Reconstruction

Johnson Impeached

• House impeaches for blocking Reconstruction; Senate does not convict

U. S. Grant Elected

• Grant elected president in 1868; wins 9 of 10 African-American votes

• Fifteenth Amendment protects voting rights of African Americans

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SECTION

4

Reconstructing Society

Conditions in the Postwar South

• By 1870, all former Confederate states have rejoined Union

• Republican governments begin public works programs, social services

Politics in the Postwar South

• Scalawags—farmers who joined Republicans, want to improve position

• Carpetbaggers—Northern Republicans, moved to the South after the war

• Many Southern whites reject higher status, equal rights for blacks

Continued . . .

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SECTION

4

continuedReconstructing Society

Former Slaves Improve Their Lives

• Freedmen found own churches; ministers become community leaders

• Republican governments, church groups found schools, universities

• Thousands move to reunite with family, find jobs

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SECTION

4

continuedReconstructing Society

  • African Americans in Reconstruction
  • • After the war, African Americans took an active role in the political process.
  • Not only did they vote, but for the first time they held office in local, state, & federal government
  • Out of 125 Southerners elected to the U.S. Congress during congressional Reconstruction, only 16 were African Americans
  • Hiram Revels is first black senator

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SECTION

4

continuedReconstructing Society

Sharecropping and Tenant Farming

• Sharecropping—tofarm land owned by another, keep only part of crops

• Tenant farmers rent land from owner

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SECTION

4

The Collapse of Reconstruction

The Collapse of Reconstruction

• Ku Klux Klan—southern vigilante group, wants to:

- destroy Republicans, aid planter class, repress African Americans

- to achieve goals, KKK kills thousand of men, women, children

• Enforcement Acts of 1870, 1871 uphold federal power in South

• In 1872, Amnesty Act passes, Freedmen’s Bureau expires

Continued . . .

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SECTION

4

The Collapse of Reconstruction

  • Support for Reconstruction Fades
  • Republicans splinter; panic of 1873 distracts North’s attention away from the South
  • Supreme Court rules against Radical Republican changes

Continued . . .

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slide35

SECTION

4

continuedThe Collapse of Reconstruction

  • Democrats “Redeem” the South
  • Democrats regain control as 1876 election deal ends Reconstruction