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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET. Information Visualization & Resources Seminar for K-12 Economics Educators Federal Reserve Bank of New York August 23 and 25, 2006 Elizabeth S. Webbink, PhD NCEE. Vice President. EconomicsAmerica.

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Information Visualization & Resources

Seminar for K-12 Economics Educators

Federal Reserve Bank of New York

August 23 and 25, 2006

Elizabeth S. Webbink, PhD

NCEE. Vice President. EconomicsAmerica

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Inspiration for Good Design

INFORMATION GRAPHICS

Edward R Tufte

is Professor Emeritus at Yale University. His work has been described as "a visual Strunk and White“.

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information

Envisioning Information

Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative

Beautiful Evidence

data presentation principles

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Data Presentation Principles
  • Use Handouts
  • Be Clear, but not Simple
  • Minimize Mapping
  • Cross-Pollinate
  • Compare and Contrast
  • Normalize the data
  • Maximize the Data:Ink Ratio & Eliminate Chartjunk
  • Use Multiples to reduce the new information to be filtered
  • Combine Multiples with Multidimensional Elements
  • Layer Information
  • Build data structures that facilitate rapid assimilation and analysis of large amounts of information
  • Standardize elements
  • Integrate words and numbers
  • DON’T use graphs for few data points or highly localized comparisons
  • DO enjoy the time savings and productivity improvements

of better graphic design

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Olaus Magnus' Map of Scandinavia 1539

DATA CAN BE RICH, DENSE AND COMPLEX

http://www.bell.lib.umn.edu/map/OLAUS/lgolaus.html

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Mapus Mundi

DATA CONVEYS MORE INFORMATION WHEN PRESENTED IN CONTEXT

with clearly marked boundaries

http://www.eaudrey.com/myth/Places/styles_of_old_maps.htm

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

COMPLEXITY CAN BE MADE CLEAR

MAPQUEST’s

view of Nantucket is clear, but simple and flat.

Examples of richer, more densely packed graphics abound in every port, (illustrated here by a clear but information-rich map of Nantucket Harbor)

Also try Google Maps (select the hybrid version) and look for your home or school!

http://www.google.com/maphp?hl=en&tab=wl&q=

With permission of Youngs Bicycle Shop, Steamboat Wharf, Nantucket, MA 02554

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

MINIMIZE MAPPING

Trends in Developing Countries, 1969 drew countries according to the size of their GNP

Later versions removed the direct visual cue for size and forced the user to “map” through the color legend to determine the relative size of GDP

WORLD BANK

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

COLOR CAN FACILITATE RAPID ABSORPTION OF INFORMATION

Gradations in a monochromatic scheme are readily understood as lower to higher values of the indicator being displayed

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

HOWEVER, COLOR CAN SLOW THE ABSORPTION OF INFORMATION IF IT REQUIRES THE VIEWER TO “MAP” INFORMATION THROUGH A LEGEND

In this illustration, a polychromatic scheme requires the viewer to refer—or map—to the legend to determine which colors represent higher or lower values.

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Toll payers contend with several payment options keyed to colored signs.

The sign over each booth is (unnecessarily) paired with a smaller number which the driver must match to numbers painted on the approach lanes.

This is further complicated in the Northbound lanes where

-- numbers are painted on the road prior to a curve and

-- before the numbers are discernible

TOO MUCH MAPPING ONLY ADDS TO THE CONFUSION

Garden State Parkway Toll Booths are models for unfriendly Graphic User Inter-face (GUI) design!

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

MINIMIZE MAPPING &

MAXIMIZE VISUAL CUES

Place descriptive information as close as possible to the data it describes

Color code scales with the data series which use them – here the index and right hand scale are in red.

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MINIMIZE MAPPING (cont.)

Common scales can facilitate comparison of multiple datasets.

The three graphs on top show State data relative to their U.S. average, However, the States cannot be compared easily to each other.

The three graphs on the bottom were redrawn with the same scale so that State data could be compared with each other as well as the U.S. average.

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

CROSS-POLLINATE

TREE OF LIFE

There are examples of good design in many fields. This is an example from BioInformatics, a field integrating Biology and the Computer Sciences

Shown here is part of the Tree of Life.

David Hillis, Paul Lewis, and their collaborators are working on new methodologies for the analysis of extremely large data sets.

Reprinted with permission of David Hillis, University of Texas, Austin, TX

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GOOD DESIGN HELPS VIEWERS “COMPARE & CONTRAST”

Well-organized data presentations can analyze as well as display information, e.g. to compare two leeches, researchers arrayed the DNA sequence

-- vertically for the leech with the blood coagulating property

-- horizontally for the leech without that property

then marked on the diagonal where the DNA matched.

Breaks along the diagonal marked the DNA segment that determines coagulation —valuable information for medical science.

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

NCEE Publications by Grade & Subject Area

LAYOUT CAN HELP A USER RAPIDLY ABSORB LARGE AMOUNTS OF INFROMATION

A matrix of information will provide a visual structure to the information. In this case, NCEE publications are arrayed according to grade level and subject area.

http://www.ncee.net/ea/public/ncee_poster.xls

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ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF VISUAL STRUCTURE FACILITATING RAPID IDENTIFICATION

L’EGGS HOSIERY

The display organizes merchandise by

- style

- color and

- size

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SMALL MULTIPLES

MAKE A BIG IMPRESSION

BRONX ZOO

Robin’s egg exhibit

I … In nature you start with 100 robins eggs

II … about 74 eggs become hatchlings

III …approximately 52 hatchlings grow to fledgling stage

IV … and roughly 10 fledglings survive to be adult robins -- and make more eggs

Photography by Kate Webbink

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MULTIPLES – OR REPEATED USE OF THE SAME STRUCTURE FACILITATES

COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF LARGE AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION

Spreadsheets can be powerful data visualization and productivity tools.

Inspiration can be found in art museums and many other places

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/mondrian/broadway.jpg

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

OVERLAY DIFFERENT INFORMATION ON A COMMON ELEMENT

REUSING THE BASIC ELEMENT TO DISPLAY NEW INFORMATION

HERE THE BASIC MAP ELEMENT IS USED w/6 TYPES OF INFORMATION

"HOMELAND SECURITY: How Infotech can combat homeland

insecurity.“ FORTUNE MAGAZINE, Monday, July 22, 2002

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MULTIPLES ALLOW THE VIEWER TO QUICKLY FOCUS ON “WHAT’S DIFFERENT”

Productivity improvements such as more rapid assimilation of information can mean:

• greater output in the same amount of time or

• less time to produce the same output with increased time to enjoy a sunrise!

Photography by Greg Webbink

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Energy Flow in the U.S. Economy

COMPARABILITY AND CAUSALITY

CAN ALSO BE DISPLAYED VISUALLY

What goes into the U.S. Energy Supply and how is it used?

Source: Energy Information Agency

http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec1_3.pdf#search=%22%2B%22energy%20flow%22%20%2B2005%22

See Also:

Energy Outlook

national council on economic education www ncee net

Mind Map for Housing Prices

CAUSALITY & INTERCONNEC-TIVITY COME TO LIFE IN MIND MAPS

(also referred to as Concept Maps)

SOURCE: Budd, John W. 2004. Mind Maps as Classroom Excercises, Journal of Economic Education, (Winter): 35-46.

http://www.indiana.edu/~econed/pdffiles/winter04/Budd.pdf#search=%22%2B%22mind%20map%22%20%2Bbudd%22

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Appendix A: Economic Statistics for use in the classroom

How DO you use data

in your classes?

How would you LIKE to use data

in your classes?

What TYPES of data would you like

to have available?

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Federal Reserve Statistical Releases

THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKSexcellent sources of data & educational materials

http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/h15/Current/

Board of GovernorsFederal Reserve Bank of Atlanta

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City

Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis

Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia

Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond

Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/h15/Current/

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

FRED

LOG ON!

The St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank has a very convenient, simple to use site for data retrieval. Log on to http://research.stlouisfed.org/useraccount/register/step1

Register for a free account. 

While you do not NEED to do this to have access to the data,

if you have an account, you can store up to 25 sets, each with 25 series,

to update and download whenever you log on.

You can log in or visit  https://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/

For instance: Scroll down to Categories

Click on U.S. Trade & International Transactions

Select Balance on Current Account

VIOLA! A chart with options to download data, add to your data set, etc.

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White House Economic Statistics

THE WHITE HOUSE ECONOMIC STATISTICS BRIEFING ROOM

http://www.whitehouse.gov/fsbr/output.html

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

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OECD Economic Outlook

OECD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

This edition of the OECD Economic Outlook analyses the major trends that will mark the years 2006 and 2007.

OECD Economic Outlook No. 79, May 2006

http://www.oecd.org/document/61/0,2340,en_2649_201185_2483901_1_1_1_1,00.html

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Briefing.com

BRIEFING.COM

http://www.briefing.com/Investor/Public/MarketAnalysis/Calendars/EconomicCalendar.htm

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Briefing.com -- sample

BRIEFING.COM

http://www.briefing.com/Investor/Public/MarketAnalysis/Calendars/EconomicCalendar.htm

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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Energy Information

ENERGY INFORMATION

http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html

http://www2.nsta.org/energy/find/primer/index.html

http://www.understanding-energy.com/

http://www.classroom-energy.com/teachers/energy_tour/pg1.html

ENERGY DEMAND GROWTH 2003-2030

(an interactive chart)

http://www.tmcclient.com/exxonmobil/map/

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NCEE’s EconEdLink

THERE ARE ABUNDANT DATA RESOURCES ON THE WEB

Find additional links on EconEdLink

http://www.econedlink.org/

Try EconEdink’s Online Compound Interest Calculator

http://www.econedlink.org/interactives/interest.html

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Why is it important to

“think in databases”?

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Helps deal with tremendous growth in information

Forces formal specification of structure, e.g., variables by which we filter — gender, country, age, etc.

Facilitates recognition of patterns IF combined with appropriate visualization techniques

Enables productivity enhancements both in the workplace and the “learning place”

People get paid more for doing work faster/better, i.e., with improved productivity

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Appendix B:

Overview of Excel Pivot Tables

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

The following pages give a quick overview of the use of Excel’s Pivot Tables in handling and displaying large data sets. If you find the visual presentation of information helpful, you might enjoy the computer training books from the “Teach Yourself Visually” series.

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Define your database range

EXCEL

Define a Range

Select/Highlight

your data range

Select

Insert /

Name /

Define /

db /

OK

xxx

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

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Create a Pivot Table

EXCEL

Construct a

Pivot Table

Select

Data / Pivot Table / MSOffice Excel list / Next

Range: =db

Next

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EXCEL

Define a Range

Select

New worksheet / Layout /

Drag “Field Names” to the positions where you want to place them in your Pivot Table.

There are four choices:

Rows,

Columns,

Pages, and

Data

Select OK /

New worksheet / Finish

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EXCEL

You can now reorganize your display to meet your needs

e.g.,

Country by Year

or

Year by Country

By dragging the field names to a different location

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Select one or all Page items

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EXCEL

You can select all or one PAGE field

Select

Real GDP per Capita

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Select ROW/COLUMN items

EXCEL

You can select and deselect ROW and COLUMN fields

Select

Canada

Japan

United Kingdom

United States

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Pivots (continued)

EXCEL

Right click inside your table and select PivotChart

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EXCEL

You can now reorganize your display to meet your needs

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EXCEL

Select other Chart Types and Options

Right click inside the chart and make your selections

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For more information on Pivot Tables:

Thomson Learning Course Guide

EXCEL

Microsoft Office Excel 2003—Illustrated ADVANCED

Help users master computer skills quickly and easily with this colorful, highly-visual Illustrated Course Guide for Excel 2003. Lessons are presented in an easy-to-follow 2-page spread that introduces step-by-step instructions on the left page and large screenshots and illustrations on the right. This signature, streamlined approach allows continuing education students learn quickly, while also serving as an excellent reference tool

http://www.course.com/catalog/product.cfm?isbn=0-619-05774-2&courseguide=y

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW.NCEE.NET

Additional EXCEL guides are available from Thomson at:

http://www.course.com/catalog/subcategory.cfm?category=Spreadsheets