Memory & Intelligence Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.
Infant intelligence & Memory • Historically, we have seriously underestimated infant’s abilities. Why? • Definition of Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior. Results from experience.
Types of Learning • Habituation • Dishabituation • Measures of habituation and dishabituation predict intelligence in childhood.
Types of Learning • Classical Conditioning • Operant conditioning • Social Learning
Infant Memory • Babies tend to remember things that give them pleasure.
Memory • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval • Short-term memory
Memory • Memory Span: a method for assessing the capacity of memory. • 2 digits: 2-3 year olds • 5 digits: 7 year old children • 61/2 digits: 7-13 year olds • Memory Span: a method for assessing the capacity of memory. • Adults: 7 bits of information
Children’s memory • Memory studies on children have shown that memory for children begins at 3 months old. • Infantile amnesia: Cannot remember memories prior to 3 years old. • False Memories • Implicit Memories • Explicit memories
Infant’s Memory • Research done by Carolyn Rouie-Collier • Infant’s memory of a mobile conscious? • Do infants acquire the ability to consciously remember the past? • A study on 2 1/2 month olds
More studies on infant memory • 7 month infants will search for an object shown to him/her. • A young infant will not. • When does conscious memory develop?
Melzoff & deferred imitation • Deferred imitation: imitation that occurs after a time delay, or hours or days. • Meltzoff demonstrated that 9 month old infants could imitate actions they had seen performed 24 hours earlier.
Problem Solving & Babies • Babies also show the ability to perform problem-solving and solve complex problems. • How does a child so young have this ability? The answer lies in understanding intelligence.
Intelligence • The ability to perform goal-oriented behavior that is conscious and deliberate and adaptive. • To be able to identify and solve problems. • Intelligence is the result of genetics and the environment.
History of Intelligence • Alfred Binet • If you had to construct an IQ test, what kinds of questions would it contain? What kinds of abilities do you think that you would want to include? • Infant Intelligence: • Early tests given to babies • The Bayley Scales of Infant Development: widely used in assessing infant development. • Mental scale • Motor scale • Infant behavior profile
Binet & Simon • Mental Age • Assessment: attention, perception, memory, numerical reasoning, verbal comprehension. • Piaget: notion of adaptive thinking. • “The form of equilibrium adaptation or exchanges between the organism and environment are directed.”
Wechsler • “The global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.” • Is there a consensus?
Intelligence Tests • One Score Tests - • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (ages 2-adult). • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – IV (6-16 years). • Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scales of Intelligence – 4-6.5 yeares • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – III (16 & older).
Wechsler Tests: Verbal IQ • Verbal IQ: Measures learned/absorbed knowledge; knowledge of history, literary/biological facts; knowledge relating to competent functioning in the world; knowledge of mathematics; knowledge of the meaning of specific words.
Performance IQ • Measures unfamiliar tasks • Speed is critical • Measures on-the-spot analytical thinking • Measures how well a person can master new problems • IQ measures person’s sanding as compared to a reference group
VIQ vs. PIQ vs. FSIQ • VIQ: measures acquired knowledge, verbal reasoning, attention to verbal materials • PIQ: measures fluid reasoning, spatial processing, attentiveness to detail, and visual-motor integration • FSIQ: overall summary score – estimates an individual’s general level of intellectual functioning. • What does this mean?
Factor Analytic Approach • Factor analysis: a statistical procedure for identifying clusters of tests or test items (called factors) that are highly correlated with each other and unrelated to other items.
Standardization • What does this mean? • Lots of people take the test to make sure its reliable and valid. • Cultural bias of tests: many have argued that tests were written for white middle class children and they were standardized in that population. • Now: Stanford-Binet has been standardized via diverse populations…. But still….
WAIS-III Standardized sample • 2,450 students • 1995 US Census dat • Stratified according to age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic region, and education level.
IQ Range Classifications • IQ Range Classification • 130 & above: Very Superior • 120-129: Superior • 110-119: High Average • 90-109: Average • 80-89: Low Average • 70-79: Borderline • 69 & below: Extremely Low
Diagnostic Issues with Intelligence • The issue of extreme scores • Diagnosis of Gifted and Talented • Diagnosis of Mental Retardation • IQ Classification • 50-69: Mild • 35-49: Moderate • 20-34: Severe • Below 20: Profound
Other Types of Tests • Achievement Tests – The Woodcock Johnson • Aptitude Tests
Self-righting tendency • Given a favorable environment, infants generally follow normal developmental patterns unless they have suffered severe damage.
Important Issues with Intelligence Tests • Standardization • Cultural Bias • Not all average IQ kids are alike • Low IQ kids
Theories of Intelligence • Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence • What is intelligence? Adaptation to one’s environment. • Assesses analytical, creative, & practical tests
Horn & Cattell • What is intelligence? A description of thinking & capabilities. This is a description of abilities. • 9 broad abilities • Fluid Reasoning • Acculturation Knowledge • Short-term apprehension retention or STM • Fluency of retrieval from LT storage or LTM • Visual Processing
Horn & Cattell • Auditory Processing • Processing Speed • Correct decision speed • Quantitative Knowledge
Evidence that this theory has merit • Developmental studies • Research on the aged • Studies on achievement • Neurological evidence • Heritability studies • Outlines for different intelligences can be seen in early childhood. Why? Separate genetic determiners and separate environment. Determiners.
Horn & Cattell’s biggest contribution: Fluid v. Crystallized intelligence • Fluid intelligence • Crystallized intelligence
Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Gardner: Multiple Intelligences • Surveyed atypical populations & found jagged cognitive profiles. • These profiles are inconsistent with unitary view of intelligence. • Theory came from atypical populations • Prodigies • Idiot savants • Autistic children • LD children • Question: does training in 1 area influence skills in other areas. For example, does math training affect musical ability?
Gardner (1993) • Linguistic intelligence – word smart • Logical-mathematical intelligence – number/reasoning smart • Spatial intelligence- picture smart • Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence – body smart • Musical intelligence – music smart • Interpersonal intelligence – people smart
Gardner • Inrapersonal intelligence – self smart • Naturalistic intelligence – nature smart