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Who are the SVEs?

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DISCIPLINING FISHERIES SUBSIDIES: INCORPORATING SUSTAINABILITY AT THE WTO AND BEYOND 1-2 March 2007 Palais des Nations, Conference Room XXII Geneva, Switzerland.

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DISCIPLINING FISHERIES SUBSIDIES: INCORPORATING SUSTAINABILITY AT THE WTO AND BEYOND1-2 March 2007Palais des Nations, Conference Room XXIIGeneva, Switzerland
slide2
Small Economies, Big Fisheries: Challenges and priorities for Management in Small Vulnerable Economies (SVE)By Justin IlakiniNational Fisheries AuthorityPapua New Guinea
sve characteristics
SVE Characteristics
  • Comprise small states and small island developing states
  • Suffer particularly from a combination of inherited and inherent characteristics that impede their ability to integrate into the global economy
  • Heavily dependent on high rates of trade preferences and tariff quotas
slide5
Sustainability, a growing challenge
  • Heavy presence of DWFNs
  • Growing domestically based foreign fleets
  • Customary ownership of resources – ‘rights over resource’ issue – coastal fishery
  • Exercise of sovereign rights within EEZs
  • Huge EESz to monitor
  • Ability to effectively implement management plans
typical small economy big fisheries
Typical Small Economy, Big Fisheries
  • Located in the Western & Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO)
  • Fisheries zone 2,437,480 million sq km
  • 17,000 km of coastline
  • 4,250 km of extended reef system, deltaic flood plains, lagoons
  • 4,180 km Islands and atolls
typical fisheries management framework
Typical Fisheries Management framework
  • Fisheries legislation or Act
  • Fisheries Management plans
  • Management measures
  • Setting of TAC
  • Control of fishing efforts (No. boats)
  • Season closures
  • Species sizes
  • Gear types
  • Fishing areas/zones …etc
  • Licensing conditions
  • MCS activities to enforce licensing conditions

“Mainly top-down approach towards fisheries management”

slide8
How effective is these fisheries management framework in SVE?Maybe two answers:Legal empowerment, yesInfrastructure or enforcement …???
two areas of importance for sves
Two areas of importance for SVEs
  • Commercial (offshore) fisheries
  • Inshore (coastal) fisheries
1 commercial offshore fisheries
(1) Commercial (Offshore) Fisheries
  • Background
  • Medium size-large scale commercial fishing activities
  • Outside customary boundaries and domesticated fisheries
  • High tech fishing equipment and fishing techniques
  • Challenges
  • Vast EEZs (extensive geographical coverage and limited surveillance capabilities
  • Limited financial resources
  • Immense task in Monitoring, Control & surveillance
  • Lack of effective coordination between relevant government agencies
  • Need for regional cooperation/collaboration
  • Effective implementation of Commission measures (WCPFC)
pacific island sve experience
Pacific Island SVE experience
  • Recognize and embraced regional cooperation
  • Formation of FFA 1979(subsequently followed the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention)
  • Promote regional cooperation & coordination (fisheries policies + development)
  • Palau Arrangement(Management of purse seine fishery)
  • Collectively develop Harmonized Minimum terms and conditions (MTCs)
  • Common regional license form
  • Control & monitoring of transshipments
  • Submission of catch logs sheets in zones + high seas
  • Identification of licensed vessels
  • Vessel reporting requirements
  • Conditions regulating placement + functions of observers
  • Conduct of vessels in transit
  • Enforcement measures
  • Vessel monitoring system (VMS)
  • Regional vessel monitoring system register
continue pic experience
Continue PIC experience…
  • Regional Vessel Monitoring System 1998 (To enhance MCS measures)
  • MTCs
  • FFA Coordinated Observer program
  • Nuie Treaty (Fisheries surveillance & Law Enforcement)
  • Coordinated Aerial Surveillance
  • These have become part of national legislations and therefore applied as license conditions
  • Establishment of Western & Central Pacific Commission 2004
  • Empowered to impose management in high seas
priorities
Priorities
  • Encourage cooperation between SVEs within the region – this can address the issue of costs
  • Encourage better coordination between relevant government arms – MCS functions on the national level is better delivered through a coordinated approach
  • Above initiatives must be supported by well developed fisheries legislation
  • Need to better document the efforts to address illegal, unreported, unregulated (IUU) and develop mechanisms for auditing these efforts
  • Consistent review of management plans backed by strong stock assessment (resource survey) programs
  • Strengthen MTCs through collective efforts
2 inshore fisheries
(2) Inshore fisheries
  • Background
  • Within 3 miles from the shore
  • Predominantly sedentary, riverine, deltaic plains,lake and reef fish fisheries
  • Largely customary owned
  • Challenges
  • Issues of ‘rights over resources’
  • From subsistence to commercially driven
  • Foreign influence in domesticated fisheries hard to monitor and prosecute
  • Enforcement of management measures & licensing conditions under a Top-down fisheries management framework limited
inshore management priorities
Inshore management priorities
  • Encourage community based management
  • Increase involvement of the community
  • Actively participate in fisheries management
  • Empowerment of local fisheries communities
  • Fishing Communities become responsible in ensuring the sustainable harvest and use of inshore fisheries resource
  • Encourage bottom-up approach
bottom up approach
Bottom up approach

International

Conventions/best practice

  • Blending of traditional & modern regimes
  • Institutionally/legally empower communities
  • Local communities make their own laws but consistent with national fisheries legislation
  • Communities to enforce management measures + licensing conditions but with support from government

RFMOs/

Regional

Arrangements

National

Fisheries Legislation

Community

Base management

inshore priorities continue
Inshore priorities continue…
  • Capacity building in stock assessment (resource surveys) programs
  • As a result consistent, up to date review of management plans
  • Aquaculture and/or mariculture
  • Re-stocking exercise
  • Community awareness programs
  • Coordinated approach in MCS activities with other relevant government arms
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The challenges faced by SVEs in terms of Managing fisheries is almost similar to problems that confront them in their efforts to integrate into the global economy
  • The problems are both inherent and inherited
  • However, priorities have to be placed on the following:
  • Encourage community involvement in fisheries management
  • Encourage collaboration between national enforcement agencies
  • Encourage regional collaboration

These could assist towards address financial constraints, administrative and MCS limitations faced by Small Vulnerable Economies

finally
Finally…

Fish and fishery resources to most, if not all SVEs represents not only livelihood and nutrition, but also most probably the only significant source of income and basis for economic development and poverty alleviation…

…it is because of these that great importance is placed on the long term sustainability of fisheries resources…

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