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  1. The Geographers Eye Seeing the World In Spatial Terms

  2. What do Geographers Do?

  3. How do they answer those questions? • They use the SPATIAL ANALYSIS of natural and human phenomena. • What in the world does this mean?

  4. Spatial Analysis • They see geography as a study of distribution, places and regions. A study of man-land relationships and research in earth sciences. Geographers seek to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. • Geography has been called 'the world discipline'. As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches—human geography and physical geography

  5. Location Where is it?

  6. Two Types of Location

  7. Absolute Location • Absolute: Latitude and Longitude 30° north and 95° west (anyone know where that is?)

  8. World Geographic Grid The world geographic grid consists of meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude. The prime meridian ( 0º) passes through Greenwich, England.

  9. Latitudes

  10. North/South Hemispheres

  11. Longitudes

  12. Measurement

  13. Relative Location • Relative: Describing where a place is by describing places near it. • South Carolina is north of Georgia and east of Tennessee.

  14. Place What it is like?

  15. Two Features

  16. Human features: The culture of a place. • Race, religions, languages, governments, occupations, architecture, foods, clothing, etc.

  17. Physical features: Things determined by nature. • Climate, indigenous plants, animals, land forms, types of soils, etc.

  18. Human/Environment Interaction How do people relate to the physical world?

  19. Human- Environment Interaction • How people effect the environment and how the environment affects people.

  20. Examples • Dams • Roads • Farms • Cities

  21. Movement How do people, ideas, & products move from one location to another?

  22. Movement • Movement of people, goods, and ideas from one place to another.

  23. Everything Came From Somewhere

  24. Movement is Measured In Distance and Time • Linear Distance How far do people, products and ideas travel from one location to another.

  25. Time Distance • The amount of time it takes for a person/idea/good to travel from one location to another.

  26. Psychological Time • The way people perceive distance.

  27. Region How are areas similar or different?

  28. Region • An area that is unique. Geographers use regions to compare different areas.

  29. Distinctive Characteristics

  30. Formal Regions • Formal regions are those that are designated by official boundaries, such as cities, states, counties, and countries. For the most part, they are clearly indicated and publicly known. • Texas • USA • Houston • Harris county

  31. Functional Regions • Organized around a set of interactions and connections between places. Areas are connected because a certain type of function exists to connect them. • Railroad service areas • Distribution of a paper • Bus routes

  32. Formal and Functional Regions The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of influence of various television stations are examples of functional regions.

  33. Perceptual Regions • People see characteristics the same way. • Hill Country • Acadiana • The Midwest • NW Houston

  34. Spatial Association at Various Scales Death rates from cancer in the US, Maryland, and Baltimore show different patterns that can identify associations with different factors.

  35. Cancer Death Rates in the U.S.

  36. Cancer Death Rates in Maryland

  37. Cancer Death Rates in Baltimore

  38. Perceptual Regions A number of features are often used to define the South as a perceptual region, each of which identifies somewhat different boundaries.