Symbiosis ORHS Biology 2014
Symbiosis • Symbiosis is the ecological RELATIONSHIP between members of at least two DIFFERENT species that live in direct contact with one another.
Symbiosis • In a symbiotic relationship at least one of the organisms directly benefits from its close association with the other organism. There are three types of symbiosis.
Commensalism • One species benefits and the other gets no real benefit or harm. YAY! No biggie...
Commensalism Shark and Remora Remoras attach themselves to a shark and eat whatever food doesn’t quite make it into the shark’s mouth. It doesn’t help or hurt the shark, but it does get the benefit of the shark’s poor dining etiquette.
Commensalism Whale and Barnacles Barnacles use whales to help them find food. They are filter feeders, so as the whale swims, the barnacle is able to filter out plankton from the water. There is no detriment to the whale…other than potential self-esteem issues.
Mutualism • Both species benefit from the relationship YAY! YAY!
Mutualism Clownfish are protected from predator fish by the stinging tentacles of the anemone, while the anemone receives protection from polyp-eating fish (like Butterfly Fish), which the Clownfish chases away. The anemone also gets fertilizer from the feces of the Clownfish. Wow! That sounds like a win-win situation! Sea Anemone and Clownfish
Mutualism Oxpecker and Antelope The Oxpecker feeds on ticks that infest the Antelope’s fur. It’s an "I clean you, you feed me" relationship.
Parasitism • One species (the parasite) benefits, but in doing so, harms the other (the host). YAY! Boo.
Parasitism Mosquitoes prey on animals while causing detriment to the host. Mosquitoes can pass on diseases (Malaria & West Nile) and cause the host itchiness, redness and swelling. They are also known to be rude, crude, and socially unacceptable. Mosquitoes and Humans
Parasitism Spanish Moss “leeches” nutrients and minerals from trees (such as Live Oaks). It also lowers a tree’s growth rate by reducing the amount of light to a tree's own leaves. It also increases wind resistance, which can prove fatal to the host tree in a hurricane. On the plus side, it looks cool, and is typically a good indication that a haunted house is nearby. Spanish Moss and Trees