Module 1. Biotechnology Basics. Developed by Mary Gutiérrez Phillips Tulsa Community College NSF/ATE Award #0602744. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS. What is biotechnology? Bio = life techno = tools ology = the study of. Definition:
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Developed by Mary Gutiérrez Phillips
Tulsa Community College
NSF/ATE Award #0602744
What is biotechnology?
Bio = life
techno = tools
ology = the study of
Biotechnology is the use of living organisms, their products or parts (such as protein, DNA or RNA) to make useful products.
NO. Humans have been breeding crops and domesticating animals for thousands of years! (10,000 C.E. – 4,000 C.E.)
Is Biotechnology a new science?
Yes and No…
People have been baking bread, making cheese, yogurt and brewing alcoholic beverages.
Yes.Since the discovery of DNA, biotechnology has involved the use and manipulation of DNA, RNA and proteins for the development of genetically modified foods, animals, vaccines and other drugs.
The microscope is discovered. Leeuwenhoek describes protozoa and bacteria.
1797 Edward Jenner inoculates child with smallpox vaccine.
1838-1839 Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schawnn state: Plants and animals are made up of cells.
1855 Rudolph Virchow states: cells come from cells.
1861 Louis Pasteur proposes the “Germ Theory,” pasteurization and discovers the rabies vaccine (1885).
1859 Charles Darwin writes “The Origin of Species” and proposes the Theory of Evolution.
1863 Gregor Mendel discovers principles of how traits are passed from parents to offspring.
1915 –Thomas Hunt Morgan studied fruit flies and proposed that chromosomes carry genes.
1917 – the first time the word “biotechnology” is used.
1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers the antibiotic penicillin – a mold.
1944 - Avery, MacLeod and McCarty discover DNA is the genetic material.
James Watson and Francis Crick describe the structure of DNA. In 1962, they win the Nobel Prize.
Adult Stem Cell Research
April 19, 1971
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer
Cut and paste bacteria and human genes DNA - Recombinant DNA Science
U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program, http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis.
Word “nanotechnology” is coined by Norio Tanihuchi of Japan
Viruses are biological “nanobots.” They range in size between 20 – 200 nanometers.
Nano - means “dwarf”
the prefix nano means a billionth or 10-9
ology- study of
Nanotechologymanipulates atoms and molecules whose size range from 1-100 nanometers.
Special microscopes can see very small objects, molecules and atoms.
July 31, 1978
1981 Transgenic mice. Mice carry human genes that help scientists test how genes work.
Genentech launches commercialization of genetically engineered products.
FDA patent approved to use genetically engineered insulin.
FDA approves the first genetically engineered vaccine -hepatitis B
Human Genome Project
Project launched to map all of the human chromosomes
Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah, permission for educational use http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu.
Bioinformatics: The use of computers, mathematical analysis and technology to study biological information.
Proteomics: The study of how proteins function in the body.
FDA approves first genetically modified food substance- a recombinantenzyme called chymosinmade from genetically modified yeast. Chymosin is used for making cheese.
Rennet (natural) comes from suckling calves stomachs.
Flavr Savr Tomato
FDA approved first genetically modified food. The tomato was resistant to rotting and could ripen on the vine longer.
Acreage 2002 USDA ERS
Acreage 2003 NCFAP
Acreage 2005 USDA NASS
75% of total crop
46% of total crop
52% of total crop
(yellow straight and crookneck;
zucchini) 2003 NCFAP
Acreage 2005 USDA NASS
Acreage 2005 USDA NASS
87% of total crop
76% of total crop
19% of total crop
SOURCES: NCFAP (www.ncfap.rg/whatwedo/pdf/2004finalreport.pdf) USDA NASS (www.nass.usda.gov)
The first animal cloned from an adult cell.
March 10, 1997
1998 - James Thompson
Human Embryonic Stem Cells
August 7, 2006
August 20, 2001
August 30, 2004
First cloned cat – CC for “carbon copy”
Human Genome sequence completed. All the human genes are mapped.
GloFish -first genetically modified pet. Just for fun!
The zebra fish have a gene from jellyfish or coral that make them glow red, green or yellow.
FDA approves first vaccine against cancer.
The vaccine blocks several types of the HPV (human papillomavirus)
The virus causes genital warts
and causes over 70% of
Permission granted: http://rhino.bocklabs.wisc.edu/cgi-in/virusworld/virustable.pl?virusdata=hpv%2C+Human+papilloma+virus%2C+1L0T
Why is Biotechnology important?
Biotech is important for many reasons:
Food and agricultural needs
Clean and safe water resources
6. Bioremediation (use of bacteria to clean the environment)
Education – sciences (biology, chemistry, microbiology, genetics biotechnology) , mathematics, business, computers.
Talk to teachers, counselors, people in the field, take special workshops, find out about shadowing or internships. Visit your community college!
Genetic testing, diseases organ transplants, vaccines, public health, epidemiologist, pharmaceutical development, fertility specialist,
Agriculture and wildlife- crop development, pesticide reduction, food safety, wildlife management, species protection, environment protection, clean water, waste management
Forensics and law, research how DNA and proteins function
October 25, 2004
November 13, 2006
Improve Life or Destroy life?
2. Access Excellence -Biotechnology 1977 to present
3. Interactive and animated timeline http://www.bio.org/speeches/pubs/er/timeline2.swf
4. Biotechnology Industry Organization Timeline
5. Biotechnology Timeline
6. Biotechnology Institute Timeline
7. Biotechnology Australia Biotechnology Timeline
8. Monsanto Company – A Brief Biotech Timeline
9. North Carolina Biotechnology Center Timeline
10. Time Magazine Covers – Free archive
Virus image Cornelia Büchen-Osmond
ICTVdB Management, Columbia University
12. All Refer.com Reference -Genetic engineering of insulin graphic permission for educational purposes http://www.allrefer.com/disclaimer.html#1
13. Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah, permission for educational use http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu. (colorful chromosomes)
14. National Institute of Health – Stem Cell Information (Promise of Stem Cell diagram) http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/defaultpage.asp
15. US Bureau Census – World Population Information - graph
16. Geek Philosopher royalty free photos (sheep, potato)
17. U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis
18. ArgenBio Spanish vocabulary and Timeline http://www.argenbio.org/h/lineat/index.php
19. Man Receiving Injection 42-16341203 image100 Royalty Free Photograph http://www.fotosearch.com/IMG015/42-16341203
20. NIH – stem cells Free image downlodas from NIH – stem cells http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/media/defaultpage.asp
21. Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page