slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Module 1

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 48

Module 1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 141 Views
  • Uploaded on

Module 1. Biotechnology Basics. Developed by Mary Gutiérrez Phillips Tulsa Community College NSF/ATE Award #0602744. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS. What is biotechnology? Bio = life techno = tools ology = the study of. Definition:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Module 1' - placido


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
Module 1

Biotechnology Basics

Developed by Mary Gutiérrez Phillips

Tulsa Community College

NSF/ATE Award #0602744

frequently asked questions

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

What is biotechnology?

Bio = life

techno = tools

ology = the study of

slide3
Definition:

Biotechnology is the use of living organisms, their products or parts (such as protein, DNA or RNA) to make useful products.

slide4
Examples: vaccines, genetically modified foods and animals, pharmaceuticals (drugs) such as insulin and growth hormone.
is biotechnology a new science yes and no
NO. Humans have been breeding crops and domesticating animals for thousands of years! (10,000 C.E. – 4,000 C.E.)

Is Biotechnology a new science?

Yes and No…

slide6
People have been baking bread, making cheese, yogurt and brewing alcoholic beverages.

(2000 C.E.)

slide7
Yes.Since the discovery of DNA, biotechnology has involved the use and manipulation of DNA, RNA and proteins for the development of genetically modified foods, animals, vaccines and other drugs.
slide8
1600 C.E. -1700 C.E.

The microscope is discovered. Leeuwenhoek describes protozoa and bacteria.

slide9
1700 C.E. - 1800 C.E.

1797 Edward Jenner inoculates child with smallpox vaccine.

slide10
1800 C.E. - 1850 C.E.

Cell Theory

1838-1839 Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schawnn state: Plants and animals are made up of cells.

1855 Rudolph Virchow states: cells come from cells.

slide11
1850 C.E. - 1900 C.E.

1861 Louis Pasteur proposes the “Germ Theory,” pasteurization and discovers the rabies vaccine (1885).

1859 Charles Darwin writes “The Origin of Species” and proposes the Theory of Evolution.

1863 Gregor Mendel discovers principles of how traits are passed from parents to offspring.

slide12
1900 C.E. - 1950 C.E.

1915 –Thomas Hunt Morgan studied fruit flies and proposed that chromosomes carry genes.

1917 – the first time the word “biotechnology” is used.

1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers the antibiotic penicillin – a mold.

1944 - Avery, MacLeod and McCarty discover DNA is the genetic material.

slide13
1950 C.E. - 1970 C.E.

1953

James Watson and Francis Crick describe the structure of DNA. In 1962, they win the Nobel Prize.

slide14
1960's C.E.

Adult Stem Cell Research

slide15
1970 - Present

Biotech Revolution

April 19, 1971

slide16
1970 C.E. - 1980 C.E.

1973

Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer

Cut and paste bacteria and human genes DNA - Recombinant DNA Science

U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program, http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis.

http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/boyercohen.html

slide17
1974

Word “nanotechnology” is coined by Norio Tanihuchi of Japan

Viruses are biological “nanobots.” They range in size between 20 – 200 nanometers.

Nano - means “dwarf”

the prefix nano means a billionth or 10-9

Tech- tools

ology- study of

http://www.swbic.org/

slide18
Definition:

Nanotechologymanipulates atoms and molecules whose size range from 1-100 nanometers.

Special microscopes can see very small objects, molecules and atoms.

slide19
April 18, 1977

July 31, 1978

http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19770418,00.html

slide20
1978

http://www.allrefer.com/pictures/s4/p0013051-genetic-engineering

slide21
1980 C.E. - 1990 C.E.

1981 Transgenic mice. Mice carry human genes that help scientists test how genes work.

slide22
March 9, 1981

Genentech launches commercialization of genetically engineered products.

slide23
1982

FDA patent approved to use genetically engineered insulin.

slide24
1986

FDA approves the first genetically engineered vaccine -hepatitis B

http://www.fotosearch.com/IMG015/42-16341203/

slide26
1990

Human Genome Project

Project launched to map all of the human chromosomes

Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah, permission for educational use http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu.

slide27
New Fields of Study Emerge

Bioinformatics: The use of computers, mathematical analysis and technology to study biological information.

Proteomics: The study of how proteins function in the body.

slide28
1990

FDA approves first genetically modified food substance- a recombinantenzyme called chymosinmade from genetically modified yeast. Chymosin is used for making cheese.

Rennet (natural) comes from suckling calves stomachs.

slide30
1994

.

Flavr Savr Tomato

FDA approved first genetically modified food. The tomato was resistant to rotting and could ripen on the vine longer.

slide31
GE Canola

GE Papaya

GE Corn

Acreage 2002 USDA ERS

Acreage 2003 NCFAP

Acreage 2005 USDA NASS

75% of total crop

46% of total crop

52% of total crop

GE Soybean

GE Cotton

GE Squash

(yellow straight and crookneck;

zucchini) 2003 NCFAP

Acreage 2005 USDA NASS

Acreage 2005 USDA NASS

87% of total crop

76% of total crop

19% of total crop

SOURCES: NCFAP (www.ncfap.rg/whatwedo/pdf/2004finalreport.pdf) USDA NASS (www.nass.usda.gov)

slide33
1996

Hello Dolly

The first animal cloned from an adult cell.

March 10, 1997

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1741559.stm

slide34
1998

1998 - James Thompson

Human Embryonic Stem Cells

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/media

slide35
2000 C.E. - present

August 7, 2006

August 20, 2001

August 30, 2004

slide36
2001

First cloned cat – CC for “carbon copy”

slide37
2003

Human Genome sequence completed. All the human genes are mapped.

slide38
2003

GloFish -first genetically modified pet. Just for fun!

The zebra fish have a gene from jellyfish or coral that make them glow red, green or yellow.

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/12/03/eveningnews/main586693.shtml

slide39
2006

FDA approves first vaccine against cancer.

The vaccine blocks several types of the HPV (human papillomavirus)

The virus causes genital warts

and causes over 70% of

cervical cancer.

Permission granted: http://rhino.bocklabs.wisc.edu/cgi-in/virusworld/virustable.pl?virusdata=hpv%2C+Human+papilloma+virus%2C+1L0T

why is biotechnology important biotech is important for many reasons
U.S. 300,233,107

World 6,557,779,128

Why is Biotechnology important?

Biotech is important for many reasons:

http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/world.html

health care food and agricultural needs clean and safe water resources alternative fuels
Biotech is important for many reasons:

Health care

Food and agricultural needs

Clean and safe water resources

Alternative fuels

slide42
5. Forensics

6. Bioremediation (use of bacteria to clean the environment)

slide44
START EARLY

Education – sciences (biology, chemistry, microbiology, genetics biotechnology) , mathematics, business, computers.

Talk to teachers, counselors, people in the field, take special workshops, find out about shadowing or internships. Visit your community college!

slide45
Genetic testing, diseases organ transplants, vaccines, public health, epidemiologist, pharmaceutical development, fertility specialist,

Agriculture and wildlife- crop development, pesticide reduction, food safety, wildlife management, species protection, environment protection, clean water, waste management

Forensics and law, research how DNA and proteins function

slide46
Biotechnology and Fears

October 25, 2004

November 13, 2006

Improve Life or Destroy life?

slide47
References
  • Biotechnology Learning Center Interactive Biotechnology Timeline

http://www.childrensmuseum.org/biotech/timeline.htm

2. Access Excellence -Biotechnology 1977 to present

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/1977-Present.html

3. Interactive and animated timeline http://www.bio.org/speeches/pubs/er/timeline2.swf

4. Biotechnology Industry Organization Timeline

http://www.bio.org/speeches/pubs/er/timeline.asp

5. Biotechnology Timeline

http://www.abpischools.org.uk/resources/poster-series/biotech/timeline.asp

6. Biotechnology Institute Timeline

http://www.biotechinstitute.org/what_is/timeline.html

7. Biotechnology Australia Biotechnology Timeline

http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/foodag/timeline.cfmFood

8. Monsanto Company – A Brief Biotech Timeline

http://www.biotechknowledge.monsanto.com/biotech/bbasics.nsf/timeline.html?OpenPage

9. North Carolina Biotechnology Center Timeline

http://www.ncbiotech.org/resource_center/timeline.html

10. Time Magazine Covers – Free archive

http://www.time.com/time/coversearch/

slide48
11. Permission to use images for educational purposes:

Virus image Cornelia Büchen-Osmond

ICTVdB Management, Columbia University

Email: [email protected]

12. All Refer.com Reference -Genetic engineering of insulin graphic permission for educational purposes http://www.allrefer.com/disclaimer.html#1

13. Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah, permission for educational use http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu. (colorful chromosomes)

14. National Institute of Health – Stem Cell Information (Promise of Stem Cell diagram) http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/defaultpage.asp

15. US Bureau Census – World Population Information - graph

http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/world.html

16. Geek Philosopher royalty free photos (sheep, potato)

http://geekphilosopher.com/MainPage/bkgVeg.htm

17. U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis

18. ArgenBio Spanish vocabulary and Timeline http://www.argenbio.org/h/lineat/index.php

19. Man Receiving Injection 42-16341203 image100 Royalty Free Photograph http://www.fotosearch.com/IMG015/42-16341203

20. NIH – stem cells Free image downlodas from NIH – stem cells http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/media/defaultpage.asp

21. Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

ad