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OPERA O scillation P roject with E mulsion-t R acking A pparatus. Brussels. Bern Neuchatel Zurich. IPNL, IRES , LAPP. INR ITEP JINR , Obninsk. Zagreb. Hamburg, Münster, Rostock. Sofia. IHEP Beijing Shandong. Aichi, Toho Kobe, Nagoya Utsunomiya. L’Aquila, Bari,

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slide1

OPERA

Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

opera is an international c ollaboration

Brussels

Bern

Neuchatel

Zurich

IPNL, IRES,

LAPP

INR ITEP

JINR, Obninsk

Zagreb

Hamburg, Münster,

Rostock

Sofia

IHEP Beijing

Shandong

Aichi, Toho

Kobe, Nagoya

Utsunomiya

L’Aquila, Bari,

Bologna, Napoli,

Padova, Roma,

Salerno, LNF, LNGS

Technion Haifa

Gyeongsang University

37 INSTITUTIONS, ~160 PHYSICISTS

METU Ankara

OPERA is an International Collaboration

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

opera is an international c ollaboration1

Brussels

Bern

Neuchatel

Zurich

IPNL, IRES,

LAPP

INR ITEP

JINR, Obninsk

Zagreb

Hamburg, Münster,

Rostock

Sofia

IHEP Beijing

Shandong

Aichi, Toho

Kobe, Nagoya

Utsunomiya

L’Aquila, Bari,

Bologna, Napoli,

Padova, Roma,

Salerno, LNF, LNGS

Technion Haifa

Gyeongsang University

37 INSTITUTIONS, ~160 PHYSICISTS

METU Ankara

OPERA is an International Collaboration

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

slide4

Neutrinos Oscillations :

Flavor change for massive Neutrinos

This property of massive neutrinos has been proposed by B. Pontecorvo (1950)

  • After 50 years of a long search with various experimental technics
  • Solar neutrinos (i.e. GALLEX at LNGS)
  • Atmospheric neutrinos (i.e. MACRO at LNGS)
  • Nuclear Reactors neutrinos
  • Accelerator neutrinos
  • The existence of the Neutrinos Oscillations has been established

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

slide5

What is the goal of OPERA

  • Once the oscillations established, a large international program has been set for checking all parameters of the flavor transitions:
  • Japan ( KEK to Super-Kamiokande) , US ( Fermi Lab to MINOS )
  • μdisappearance
  • Europe ( CERN to Gran Sasso )
  • τappearance  OPERA

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

detection of the n t appearance signal

-

n

Decay “kink”

nm

-

nm

oscillation

n

t-

nt

~1 mm

Detection of the nt appearance signal

The challenge is to identify ntinteractions

from ninteractions

Toplogy selection:

Kink signature

  • Two conflicting requirements:
  • Large mass  low Xsection
  • High granularity

 signal selection

 background rejection

  • Target:1800 tons, 5 years running
  • 30 000 neutrino interactions
  • ~150 ntinteractions
  • ~15 nt identified
  • < 1 event of background

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

slide7

1 mm

t

n

8.3 Kg

 Interaction

From NUMI exposure

Pb

Emulsion layers

10.2cm

12.5cm

Electron shower

OPERA bricks

1 ECC= 56 Pb + 57 emulsions

  • ECC : target basic component
  • Em Provides high space resolution
  • + Lead active target mass
  • Compact and modular structure

10 X0’s

2 emulsion layers

(44 m thick)

poured on a

200 m plastic base

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

opera cngs1 an hybrid detector

8 cm

Electronic detectors:

Emulsion analysis:

Vertex, decay kink e/gID, multiple scattering, kinematics

8 m

Spectrometer

Target Trackers

Pb/Em. target

supermodule

Link to mu ID,

Candidate event

Pb/Em. brick

Basic “cell”

Pb

Emulsion

1 mm

Extract selected brick

Brick finding muon ID, charge and p

OPERA/CNGS1 : an hybrid detector
  • What the brick cannot do:
  • trigger for a neutrino interaction
  • muon identification and momentum/charge measurement need for an hybrid detector

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

structure of the opera experiment
Structure of the OPERAExperiment

31 target planes / supermodule (in total: 206336 bricks, 1766 tons)

SM1

SM2

Magnetic Spectrometers

Targets

Proposal: July 2000,

installation at LNGS started in May 2003

First observation of CNGS beam neutrinos : August 18th, 2006

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

slide10

details of the first spectrometer

OPERA Super-module

OPERA Trackers in pictures & numbers

5900 m² scintillator detectors – 3050 m² Resistive Plate Chambers

8064 7m long drift tubes - ~2000 tons of Fe

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

august 2006 first neutrinos from the cngs detected

10.5 ms

10.5 ms

50 ms

August 2006 : first neutrinos from the CNGS detected

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

slide12

Event selection by using GPS timing informations

Ext2

Ext1

10 ms

50 ms

Zoom on the spill peaks

Δt first extraction (ns)

Cosmic rays background events

Δt closest extraction (ns)

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

beam event
Beam event

CC event originated

from material in front of the detector (BOREXINO, rocks)

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

cc event in the first magnet
CC event in the first magnet

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

cc event in the first target
CC event in the first target

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

muons bundle from cosmic rays
Muons bundle from cosmic rays

Cosmic rays event can be easily isolated using their topology

Cosmic rays induced events:

Mostly down going

Beam events:

~horizontal tracks

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

conclusions
Conclusions
  • The CNGS beam is operating smoothly with very good quality
  • The tracking detectors of OPERA are taking data with practically no dead time
  • More than 300 beam correlated events have been registered with a clean time distribution
  • The recorded events show the expected tracking performances
  • Correlation between tracks measured in the tracking detectors and emulsions installed in the target have been observed
  • OPERA is now preparing the next step:
  •  observing neutrino interactions in the Emulsion Cloud Chamber bricks
  • Next step : end of october run !!!

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

brick production

BAM wrapping section

CS box

Brick

Brick production

BAM piling/pressing section

Emulsion films

  • Starting now:
  • 12 106 emulsions & lead plates
  • 200 000 bricks to be produced
  • production rate : 1000/day
  • 10 months
  • for filling the detector

Lead boxes

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

brick insertion extraction processing
Brick insertion, extraction, processing,

Brick Manipulating System

Vacuum sucker vehicle

Emulsion developping lab

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

event reconstruction in the brick
Event reconstruction in the brick

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN

slide21

The messenger of the stars

is revealing great and wonderful spectacles

and incite everyone to look up at these …

For 50 years, by recording neutrinos from the sun, the Super-Novae, cosmic rays we improved our understanding in Astrophysics and Cosmology

In addition, neutrinos gave us a present by revealing their properties: this is opening a new field of research in fondamental physics for the next 50 years which will also have profound consequences in the understanding of the Universe

LNGS and the Neutrinos from CERN